A Study on Genetics

Genetics can be stated as the exploration of the working and major cause of variation and heredity. The groundwork on which here it stands is known as inheritance. it is defined as the procedure by which characteristics are handed down from one generation to the other. In this post, A Study on Genetics, we will see the structure and function of DNA and the story and theory of evolution.


  • Species share many tricks in common from generation to generation. This is due to their inheritance of genes from their ancestors.
  • Genetics is the study of genes and genetic variation in living organism.
  • Gregor Johann Mendel is the father of genetics.

Mendel’s Law’s of inheritance

  1. Law of dominance
  2. Law of segregation
  3. Law of independence Assortment

Law of dominance

When a monohybrid cross done between two homozygous plant then in the F1 generation only one character appears while other characters remains in hidden stage. The character appears in F1 is called dominant and the other character is called recessive.

Law of segregation

When a monohybrid cross is conducted between two homozygous plants, then in F1 only one character appears while other characters remains in hidden stage. The character appears in F1 only dominant character appears, when these F1 are self crossed, they segregate into F2.

Law of independence Assortment

When a dihybrid conducted between two homozygous plants, then in F1 only one character appears.

Genetics Terminology

  1. Allele – Each gene of a pair of genes controlling a character is an allele to the other.
  2. Homozygous – When both the alleles are identical they are said to be homozygous.
  3. Genotype – The genetic makeup of an organism is it’s genotype.
  4. Phenotype – The external feature of an organism form its phenotype.
  5. Dominant and Recessive – The allele which expresses itself and which remains masked is recessive.
  6. Hybridization – The cross between two homozygotes differing from each other at least in one gene is called hybridization and it’s product is known as hybrid.

Genetic Engineering

  • It is a new branch of science used to many postulate of the heredity material. This is made possible by obtaining recombinant DNA. Hence the techniques concerned ia also known as recombinant DNA technology.
  • Gene cloning is major achievement of genetic engineering.
  • To clone means to make identical copies.


  • It is a process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that are founded in nature.
  • Cloning in biotechnology refers to processes used to create copies of DNA fragments(molecular cloning), cells (cell cloning) or organisms.
  • In 1997 clone of lamb was a successful produced.


  • DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid which was discovered by Watson and Crick in 1953.
  • DNA is a molecule that encodes the genetic instruction used in the development and functioning of all living organisms and many viruses. DNA is a nucleic acid.
  • Most DNA located in the cell nucleus, but a small amount of DNA can also be found in the mitrocondria.
  • Human DNA consist of about three billion bases.
  • An important property of DNA is that it can replicate or make copies of itself.


  • It stands for ribonucleic acid. RNA is one of the three major biological macromolecule that are essential for all forms of life along with DNA and proteins.
  • The chemical structure of RNA is very similar to the DNA.