- Initially, in the 1950s the policy makers stressed maximization of economic growth by stepping up investment assuming that the benefits arising out of it would trickle down and diffuse among all sectors of the society. But in 1970s, it was realised that the benefits of agricultural growth did not percolate to the rural poor.
- This gave birth to the second approach let by the structural School which pleaded for the establishment of egalitarian society and suggested distribution of assets through land reforms, community development programmes, cooperative farming, and nationalisation of wing industries. But this also did not work.
- Then came the idea in the 1980s that suggested attack on poverty through rural development programmes such as IRDP, TRYSEM, NREP and RLEGP, which later on merged in JRY programme. In recent years, land mark scheme to alleviate rural poverty in the country called Mahatma Gandhi National Rural employment guarantee scheme has been launched.
Before analysing these anti poverty programs, we shall first evaluate the role of five year plans, nationalisation and 20 point programme in poverty alleviation.
The Five Year Plans
The planning commission set up in 1950 has been formulating five year plans for country’s development taking on overall view of the needs and resources of the country. All our plans have been oriented towards something- sometime self-reliance in agriculture production, sometimes employment, industrial growth and so on.
The growth performance of the Indian economy in terms of GDP, relative to the targets set in the various plans right since the inception of planning in India. the economy has performed better than the target in five of the 9 previous plans and even in second plan the gap was not large.
The policy of nationalization was adopted in 1969 and 14 banks were nationalized. This was followed by the National association of coal mines in 1972. The government’s taking over the control of the big private iron and Steel company and their wholesale business in food grains.
The nationalization aimed at granting credit to weaker sections. It is true that the credit share of banks to property sector like agriculture, small scale industry, professionals and transport operators has largest supplier after nationalisation.
From 14.6% of net bank credit in 1969 to nearly 37.8% in 1994 and 41.8% in 1998 and is increasing continually even after at the rate of 15 to 20%, which has resulted in modernization of nation’s but nationalisation has some negative effect too. आप Anti Poverty Programmes Sarkari Focus पर पढ़ रहे हैं।
Judged from the standpoint of efficiency, the quantum of profits, the standard of service to the general public or even deposit mobilization, the banks have not been the pace-setters which the government claims them to be. Lack of efficiency initiative and commitment have been the casualties of nationalisation.
Many economists have described these schemes as being detrimental to the economy, they do not contribute anything to the sustainable development of the country.
|Measurements of Poverty||Causes of Poverty in India|
|Social Problems||Rural Poverty|
|Poverty Pains and Problems of Poor||Anti Poverty Programmes|
|Integrated Rural Development Programme||Poverty Alleviation Measures|
|Indira Awas Yojana|
Former prime minister Indira Gandhi pronounce this program in July 1975 reducing poverty, economic exploitation and for the upliftment of the weaker section of the society. The five important goals of this program were:
- Controlling inflation
- Giving incentive to production
- Welfare of the rural population
- Landing help to the urban middle classes
- Controlling economic and social crimes
The Anti Poverty Programmes included in the 20-point program were:
- Increase in irrigational facilities
- Increasing production programme for Rural employment
- Distribution of surplus land
- Minimum wages to landless labourers
- Rehabilitation of bonded labour
- Development of schedule caste and scheduled Tribes
- Growth of housing facilities
- Increasing power production
- Family planning
- Tree plantation
- Extension of primary health facilities
- Program for the welfare of women and children
- Increase in primary education
- Strengthening of the distribution system
- Simplification of industrial policies
- Control of Black money
- Betterment of drinking water facilities
- Developing internal resources
The program was continued with the change of government,when the Janata party became the ruling party at the centre.
The fact that the rural people and the urban people are more discontented and feel more frustrated today points to the failure of the 20-point programme in fulfilling its commitments.
Anti Poverty Programmes
Several Anti Poverty Programmes have been launched by the government for the rural poor, comprising the small and marginal farmers, landless labourers and rural artisans, as well as urban poor. These poverty alleviation programmes are classified into
- Self employment programmes
- Wage employment programmes
- Food security programmes
- Social Security programs
- Urban poverty alleviation programmes