General Study

Role of Media

Role of Media – Media came into existence in 1780 with the introduction of a newspaper namely “The Bengal Gazette” and since then it has matured leaps and bounds. It has been playing a very important role in shaping human minds. Media is the reflection of our society and it depicts what and how society works. Media, either it is printed, electronic or the web is the only medium, which helps in making people informed. It also helps in entertaining the public, educate and make people aware of the current happenings. Media has today become the voice of our society. There is a variety of media platform that has stimulated the thoughts of the young generation and other sections of …

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Role of Media

Climate

Climate is about the third among landforms and the drainage of our country. that is, the atmospheric conditions that prevail over our country. Why do we wear woolens in December or why it is hot and uncomfortable in the month of May, and why it rains in June – July? The answers to all these questions can be found out by studying the climate of India. Climate and Weather Climate refers to the sum total of weather conditions and variations over a large area for a long period of time (more than thirty years). Weather refers to the state of the atmosphere over an area at any point in time. The elements of weather and climate are the same, i.e. …

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Climate

Drainage

The term drainage describes the river system of an area. Look at the physical flowing from different directions come together to form the main river, which ultímately drains into a large water body such as a lake or a sea or an ocean. The area drained by a single river system is called a drainage basin. A closer observation on a map will indicate that any elevated area, such as a mountain or an upland, separates two drainage basins. Such an upland is known as a water divide.   DRAINAGE SYSTEMS IN INDIA  The drainage systems of India are mainly controlled by the broad relief features of the subcontinent. Accordingly, the Indian rivers are divided into two major groups:  the …

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Drainage

Educating masses on health and nutrition

Changing foods habits with reduced physical activity is a growing phenomenon around the world. People are consuming more foods high in energy, saturated fats, free sugars, salt and less of fruits. Nutritious food is a vital cornerstone of health. Health awareness news to be imported to provide knowledge and skill regarding relationship between good diet, physical activity and health. There is a consistent rise in the problem of undernutrition micronutrient deficiencies obesity and diet related chronic diseases across the globe. Energy imbalance may result in poor physical and cognitive development morbidity and mortality as well as multi to the laws of human potential does affecting social economic development. Many developing Nations including India are presently dealing with health concerns at …

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Appropriate nutrition for women and children

Appropriate nutrition and good health are important contributors to human resource development. Long-term malnutrition leads to stunting wasting and non communicable diseases increased morbidity and mortality as well as reduced work capacity. All these are responsible for causing huge economic losses to the country. Scenes widespread malnutrition is largely due to the dietary inadequate household it patterns needs to be improved- both in terms of quantity and quality by incorporating a variety of foods. Appropriate Nutrition Thus an appropriately well balanced diet comprising a variety of foods needs to be advocated to the masses. Our nutrients needs are affected by age, gender physical activity body composition growth rate psychological distress pathological conditions and many other factors. Indian council of medical …

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Nutrition: A Public health priority

Nutrition is certainly a policy issue and women and children alone, as the country has moved away from the selective faces of the MDGs to the more comprehensive SDGs. The increasing version of communicable diseases as well as overnutrition are leading to a complex policy challenges. Hence, while government policies and programs are converging and taking steps to management nutrition the most important factor affecting positive change will be have your change of the population, where individuals and communities make informed choices regarding their nutrition needs and the food they eat and also changing to a healthy lifestyle which strongly compounds the benefit of the healthy eating. Nutrition The definition given by the British nutrition foundation is the study of …

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Health system: towards a new India

In its three year action agenda, NITI Ayog call to for a new wave of institution building with a strong and a proactive stewardship role by the government to overcome the persistent challenges while leveraging the potential of mixed health system. The government has launched several reform initiatives over the last few years which need to be rigorously implemented. Additionally, the key enables of health system reform such as financing organisation and provision of service delivery as well as digital help need to be strengthened. Health system: towards a new India India had made noteworthy strides on health and nutrition over the last two decades. Given the size, complexity and diversity of our country, the importance of these improvements in …

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Health and nutrition overview and the way forward

Nutrition is an essential part of better health and the ancient systems of medicines followed that principal health and nutrition contribute to human capital formation and the growth and development of a nation. It is time to consider new approaches to tackle double burden of malnutrition andar nutrition and obesity at the same time. The focused attention and tailor-made stretches for specifically level population groups such as women in reproductive age group children and all rural residents are needed. The interlinking between health and nutrition has been recognised scenes ages good nutritional status ensure that individual can fight diseases causing agents stage healthy reproductive to the society and contribute to overall development. The challenge of nutrition is multilayered. The terminology …

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Health and Nutrition – Prime movers of the nation’s development

It is a fact that better health and nutrition not only have a positive impact on individual development but also contributes significantly to the overall progress of the country. It would not be exaggeration to call name the veins of the country’s progress. Health and nutrition not only play a vital role in making human life dynamic table and prosperous but it also has the potential to empower develop and strengthen the nation. Article 21 of the constitution of India guarantees every citizen of the country have the right to live with dignity and protection of personal liberty. The supreme court has also held the right to live with human dignity as described in article 21 of the constitution is …

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Health and Nutrition

It is required to study the Health and Nutrition to enhance the level of awareness among people especially in rural India. Regarding the benefits of adopting and practicing a healthy lifestyle while also talking care of proper nutrition in their routine lifestyle. Proper nutrition levels are pre-request to a progressive improvement in the health of any individual. Poshan Abhiyan is aimed at improving nutritional requirements for children, adolescence, pregnant women, and lactating mothers. Our lead article talks about the importance of overcoming the challenges of health and nutrition in order to transform the vision and result of Clean India Healthy India, malnutrition free India, and new India into reality. Health and Nutrition These goals can be achieved with the commitment …

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Health and Nutrition

Pastoralists in the Modern World

Nomads are people who do not live in one place but move from one area to another to earn their living. In many parts of India we can see nomadic pastoralists on the move with their herds of goats and sheep, or camels and cattle. Have you ever wondered where they are coming from and where they are headed? Do you know how they live and earn? What their past has been? Pastoralists  Pastoralists rarely enter the pages of history textbooks. When you read about the economy – whether in your classes of history or economics – you learn about agriculture and industry. Sometimes you read about artisans; but rarely about pastoralists. As if their lives do not matter. As …

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Pastoralists in the Modern World

A Social History of Clothing

A Social History of Clothing – It is easy to forget that there is a history to the clothes we wear. All societies observe certain rules, some of them quite strict, about the way in which men, women, and children should dress, or how different social classes and groups should present themselves. These norms come to define the identity of people, the way they see themselves, the way they want others to see them. They shape our notions of grace and beauty, ideas of modesty and shame. As times change and societies are transformed, these notions also alter, Modifications in clothing come to reflect these changes. A Social History of Clothing  The emergence of the modern world is marked by …

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A Social History of Clothing

History of Cricket

History of Cricket – Cricket grew out of the many stick-and-ball games played in England 500 years ago, under a variety of different rules. The word “bat” is an old English word that simply means stick or club. By the seventeenth century, cricket had evolved enough to be recognizable as a distinct game and it was popular enough for its fans to be fined for playing it on Sunday instead of going to church. Till the middle of the eighteenth century, bats were roughly the same shape as hockey sticks, curving outwards at the bottom. History of Cricket There was a simple reason for this: the ball was bowled underarm, along the ground and the curve at the end of …

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History of Cricket

Banking: Commercial Banks and The Central Bank

A commercial bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the people and offers loans for the purpose of consumption or investment. According to Indian Banking Companies Act, “Banking company is one which transacts the business of banking which means the accepting ( for the purpose of lending or investment ) of deposits of money from the public repayable on demand or otherwise and withdrawable by cheque draft, order or otherwise.” The rate of interest charged by the commercial banks ( for the loans they offer ) is higher than the rate of interest paid by them ( for the deposits they accept ) . The difference between the two rates is called ‘ spread ‘ , which is …

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Banking: Commercial Banks and The Central Bank

The River Kosi

On 18 August 2008, the river was wreaked havoc, when the Cochin picked up a channel that it had abandoned over 100 years ago near the Nepal India border. Lakhs of people on both sides of the border were affected as the river broke its embankment at Kusama in Nepal. Thus submerging several districts of the two nations. In Bihar, over 2.5 children, women, and men are experiencing mental and physical shock and suffering due to displacement from their homes, deficiency of food intake, lack of access to clean drinking water and spread of epidemics. Women and children as well as the most about 95% of the total floor, of course, she is now passing through the new course. Calling …

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River Kosi

Water and sanitation for healthy India

Water and sanitation for healthy India – In India, the provision of clean drinking water has been given priority in the constitution. Article 47 conferring the duty of providing clean water and improving public health standards to the state. Water is also in the main agenda item of the sustainable development goals. Sustainable development goal 6 especially focuses on this issue: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. Water is the most precious essential commodity in the lives of the human being and every human being has the right to have continuous availability of potable water. Continuous availability of potable water is one of the important parameter of human index. Money and Supply of Money Water …

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Water and sanitation for healthy India

Supply of Money in India

Supply of Money in India – Exchange is of central significance in human life. An individual does not produce himself all that he needs for his existence. He depends upon many others for the satisfaction of his wants. This implies interdependence. Interdependence implies exchange. A thing that is commonly accepted as a medium of exchange is called money. Example: A rupee in India is money as it is a commonly accepted medium of exchange there. Supply of Money in India When wants were not so multiple, goods were exchanged for goods. in the olden days, a cobbler would make shoes in return for wheat from the farmer; a farm worker would get grains as a reward for his labor, and …

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Supply of Money in India

Foreign Exchange Rate

Foreign exchange rate refers to the rate at which one unit of currency of a country can be exchanged for the number of units of currency of another country. In other words, it is the price paid in domestic currency in order to get one unit of foreign currency. Example: $1= ₹50 or 1/50 Dollar = 2 cents Thus, exchange rate expresses the ratio of exchange between the currencies of two countries. It is the price of a currency expressed in terms of another currency, Some economists refer to it as the external value of the currency. The rate of exchange measures number of units of one currency which is exchange in the foreign market for one unit of another …

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Balance of Payments, महँगाई

Balance of Payment

Balance of payments is a statement of accounts showing all monetary transactions of a country with rest of the world. The monetary transactions may arise out of: export and import of goods (called merchandise) export and import of services called invisibles international sale and purchase of financial assets (like stocks and bonds) international sale and purchase of real assets like plant and machinery) The balance of payments of a country is a systematic record of all economics transactions between its residents and residents of foreign countries. Balance of payments is a set of accounts showing economic transactions of a country with rest of the world. Significance of Balance of Payment Significance of the BoP accounts is highlighted by the following …

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Balance of Payments, महँगाई

Government Budget

Government Budget – Last day of the month of February is well known in India as a day when the Finance Minister presents annual budget of the government. The Budget unfolds: The financial performance of the government over the past one year, and the financial programmes and policies of the government for the next one year. As regards financial performance of the government, it is more like a description of what happened during the past one year. Focus is placed largely on the other part of the budget describing programmes and policies of the government for the year to come. The programmes and policies of the government are summed up as ‘Budgetary Policy’ of the government, also called ‘fiscal policy’ …

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Government Budget

Thermal Energy and Heat

We know that Heat from the sun warms the Earth and Heat is produced when things burn. Heat and light from the Sun support life on the earth. To understand what heat is, we must first learn about thermal energy. Thermal Energy Matter is made up of extremely small particles called molecules. For example the air water and a piece of metal are all made up of certain types of molecules. The molecules that form water, air and the metal are different from each other. But they have one common feature. They all show a movement. The molecules of a substance move because they possess energy. The sum of the energy possessed by all the moving molecules of the substance …

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Thermal Energy and Heat

Electoral Politics

Electoral Politics – An election is a way by which people can choose their candidate or their preferences in a representative democracy or other forms of government. Most democratic countries hold new elections for their national legislature every few years. What elections do is select representatives for the local areas or the areas in which they work. Electoral Politics In this topic, we will look at how these representatives are elected.  We begin by understanding why elections are necessary and useful in a democracy.  We try to understand how electoral competition among parties serves the people.  We then go on to ask what makes an election democratic. The basic idea here is to distinguish democratic elections from non-democratic elections. The …

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Electoral Politics

Constitutional Design

In a democracy, the rulers are not free to do what they like.  There are certain basic rules that the citizens and the government have to follow.  All such rules together are called constitutions.  As the supreme law of the country, the constitution determines the rights of citizens, the powers of the government, and how the government should function. Constitutional Design In this topic we ask some basic questions about the constitutional design of a democracy.  Why do we need a constitution?  How are the constitutions drawn up?  Who designs them and in what way?  What are the values that shape the constitutions in democratic states?  Once a constitution is accepted, can we make changes later as required by the …

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Indian Constitution, The Judiciary, प्रजातंत्र

The Judiciary

The Judiciary The judiciary is also known as the judicial system, judicial branch, judicative branch, and court or judiciary system. It is the system of courts that adjudicates legal disputes and interprets, defends, and applies the law in legal cases. One final time to the story of Office Memorandum that we started with. This time let us not recall the story, but imagine how different the story could have been. Remember, the story came to a satisfactory end because the Supreme Court gave a verdict that was accepted by everyone. Imagine what would have happened in the following situations: If there was nothing like a Supreme Court in the country. Even if there was a Supreme Court, if it had …

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Indian Constitution, The Judiciary, प्रजातंत्र

Why Do We Need a Constitution?

Why Do We Need a Constitution? – India’s Constitution is the supreme law of India. It defines the Government’s fundamental political values, policies, processes, powers, rights, and duties. It helps in the relationship between the people and government. The South African example is a good way to understand why we need a constitution and what do constitutions do. The oppressor and the oppressed in this new democracy were planning to live together as equals. It was not going to be easy for them to trust each other. They had their fears. They wanted to safeguard their interests. The black majority was keen to ensure that the democratic principle of majority rule was not compromised. They wanted substantial social and economic …

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Indian Constitution, The Judiciary, प्रजातंत्र

Working of Institutions

Working of Institutions – Democracy is not just about people electing their rulers. In a democracy, the rulers have to follow some rules and procedures. They have to work with and within institutions. This topic is about the working of such institutions. We try to understand this by looking at the manner in which major decisions are taken and implemented in our country. We also look at how disputes regarding these decisions are resolved. In this process, we come across three institutions that play a key role in major decisions – the legislature, executive, and judiciary You have already read something about these institutions. Here we shall quickly summarise those and move on to asking larger questions. In the case …

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Working of Institutions

National Income

National income is the sum total of factor incomes earned by normal residents of a country during the period of an accounting year. This definition of national income includes two important observations: National income includes factor incomes only National income includes income of only the normal residents of a country A deeper understanding of the concepts of (i) factor incomes and (ii) normal residents,should be useful in understanding the subject matter of national income and related aggregates. Factor Incomes Factor incomes are related to factor services or factors of production (land, labour, capital, and entrepreneurship). Households are the owners of factors of production (or factor services). Producers hire/purchase the factor services from the households. In return, the households receive payments …

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Balance of Payments, महँगाई

Fibre to Fabric

Since ancient times, people living in cold places covered their bodies with animal fur. With time they realise that the fleas of many animal could be used to make wool. Animal such as sheep, goats and camel were domesticated and their hair was used to make wool. Animal fibre Wool and silk are animal fibres. Animal plant and synthetic fibres can be distinguished by the way they burn. When cotton burns, it leaves behind s and gives out a characteristic order of burning paper. Pure wool burns with a shooting flame and gives up and unpleasant order of burning hair. The residue of the burnt wool is hard. Silk fibres also burn with a sooty flame and give out a …

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Impact of the Right to Education

The right to education (RTE) act had been one of the country’s most defining moments. Like all momentous decisions, the decision to bring about this legislation was also the culmination of deep thought and earnest attempt over a number of decades, to user in universal education. We have come a long way from 1910 when Gopal Krishna Gokhale demanded free and compulsory primary education in India to 2002. When the article 21a was inserted in the constitution of India which declared that the state shall provide free and compulsory education to all the children of age 6 to 14 years in such manner as the state may by law determine. Just like human being nations too, have their own chequered …

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Banking on Banks

The concept of saving has always excited in different cultures all over the world. Connecting currency in pots and burying them under the earth is something that has been done all over the world in ancient times. The royal treasury was the repository of monies collected in a kingdom by way of taxes or acquired as levies from subordinate dependent kingdoms. With the advent of modern banking management of money shifted from the home to the bank. Appeal found it safer to deposit money and jewellery in the bank which had volt to safeguard their wealth. Also, banks offered interest on deposits which meants additional income. The banking system in India started with a small, private and commercial banks. But …

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