Economy

Health and nutrition overview and the way forward

Nutrition is an essential part of better health and the ancient systems of medicines followed that principal health and nutrition contribute to human capital formation and the growth and development of a nation. It is time to consider new approaches to tackle double burden of malnutrition andar nutrition and obesity at the same time. The focused attention and tailor-made stretches for specifically level population groups such as women in reproductive age group children and all rural residents are needed. The interlinking between health and nutrition has been recognised scenes ages good nutritional status ensure that individual can fight diseases causing agents stage healthy reproductive to the society and contribute to overall development. The challenge of nutrition is multilayered. The terminology …

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A Social History of Clothing

A Social History of Clothing – It is easy to forget that there is a history to the clothes we wear. All societies observe certain rules, some of them quite strict, about the way in which men, women, and children should dress, or how different social classes and groups should present themselves. These norms come to define the identity of people, the way they see themselves, the way they want others to see them. They shape our notions of grace and beauty, ideas of modesty and shame. As times change and societies are transformed, these notions also alter, Modifications in clothing come to reflect these changes. A Social History of Clothing  The emergence of the modern world is marked by …

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A Social History of Clothing

Banking: Commercial Banks and The Central Bank

A commercial bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the people and offers loans for the purpose of consumption or investment. According to Indian Banking Companies Act, “Banking company is one which transacts the business of banking which means the accepting ( for the purpose of lending or investment ) of deposits of money from the public repayable on demand or otherwise and withdrawable by cheque draft, order or otherwise.” The rate of interest charged by the commercial banks ( for the loans they offer ) is higher than the rate of interest paid by them ( for the deposits they accept ) . The difference between the two rates is called ‘ spread ‘ , which is …

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Banking: Commercial Banks and The Central Bank

Supply of Money in India

Supply of Money in India – Exchange is of central significance in human life. An individual does not produce himself all that he needs for his existence. He depends upon many others for the satisfaction of his wants. This implies interdependence. Interdependence implies exchange. A thing that is commonly accepted as a medium of exchange is called money. Example: A rupee in India is money as it is a commonly accepted medium of exchange there. Supply of Money in India When wants were not so multiple, goods were exchanged for goods. in the olden days, a cobbler would make shoes in return for wheat from the farmer; a farm worker would get grains as a reward for his labor, and …

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Supply of Money in India

Foreign Exchange Rate

Foreign exchange rate refers to the rate at which one unit of currency of a country can be exchanged for the number of units of currency of another country. In other words, it is the price paid in domestic currency in order to get one unit of foreign currency. Example: $1= ₹50 or 1/50 Dollar = 2 cents Thus, exchange rate expresses the ratio of exchange between the currencies of two countries. It is the price of a currency expressed in terms of another currency, Some economists refer to it as the external value of the currency. The rate of exchange measures number of units of one currency which is exchange in the foreign market for one unit of another …

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Balance of Payments, महँगाई

Balance of Payment

Balance of payments is a statement of accounts showing all monetary transactions of a country with rest of the world. The monetary transactions may arise out of: export and import of goods (called merchandise) export and import of services called invisibles international sale and purchase of financial assets (like stocks and bonds) international sale and purchase of real assets like plant and machinery) The balance of payments of a country is a systematic record of all economics transactions between its residents and residents of foreign countries. Balance of payments is a set of accounts showing economic transactions of a country with rest of the world. Significance of Balance of Payment Significance of the BoP accounts is highlighted by the following …

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Balance of Payments, महँगाई

Government Budget

Government Budget – Last day of the month of February is well known in India as a day when the Finance Minister presents annual budget of the government. The Budget unfolds: The financial performance of the government over the past one year, and the financial programmes and policies of the government for the next one year. As regards financial performance of the government, it is more like a description of what happened during the past one year. Focus is placed largely on the other part of the budget describing programmes and policies of the government for the year to come. The programmes and policies of the government are summed up as ‘Budgetary Policy’ of the government, also called ‘fiscal policy’ …

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Government Budget

National Income

National income is the sum total of factor incomes earned by normal residents of a country during the period of an accounting year. This definition of national income includes two important observations: National income includes factor incomes only National income includes income of only the normal residents of a country A deeper understanding of the concepts of (i) factor incomes and (ii) normal residents,should be useful in understanding the subject matter of national income and related aggregates. Factor Incomes Factor incomes are related to factor services or factors of production (land, labour, capital, and entrepreneurship). Households are the owners of factors of production (or factor services). Producers hire/purchase the factor services from the households. In return, the households receive payments …

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Balance of Payments, महँगाई

Impact of the Right to Education

The right to education (RTE) act had been one of the country’s most defining moments. Like all momentous decisions, the decision to bring about this legislation was also the culmination of deep thought and earnest attempt over a number of decades, to user in universal education. We have come a long way from 1910 when Gopal Krishna Gokhale demanded free and compulsory primary education in India to 2002. When the article 21a was inserted in the constitution of India which declared that the state shall provide free and compulsory education to all the children of age 6 to 14 years in such manner as the state may by law determine. Just like human being nations too, have their own chequered …

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Silk Production

Silk is the most elegant textile in the world with unparalleled grandeur, natural sheen, and inherent affinity for dyes, high absorbance, lightweight, soft touch and high durability and known as the “Queen of Textiles” the world over. On the other hand, Silk Production stands for livelihood opportunity for millions owing to high employment-oriented, low capital intensive and remunerative nature of its production. The very nature of this industry with its rural-based on-farm and off-farm activities and enormous employment generation potential has attracted the attention of the planners and policymakers to recognize the industry among one of the most appropriate avenues for socio-economic development of a largely agrarian economy like India. Silk has been intermingled with the life and culture of …

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Silk Production

Factors affecting the working capital requirements

there are many factors that affects the working capital. Here i am providing some most important factors. Nature of business The basic nature of the business influences the amount of working capital required trading. Organisation usually needs a small amount compared to a manufacturing organisation. This is because there is usually no processing therefore there is no distinction between raw material and finished goods sales can be effected immediately upon the receipt of material. Sometimes even before that in a manufacturing business, however, raw material needs to be converted into finished goods. Before any sales become possible other factors remaining the same. iterating business required less working capital similarly service industry which usually do not have to maintain inventory require …

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Factors affecting the working capital requirements

Financial Market

You all know, that business needs finance from the time and entrepreneur makes the decision to start it. It needs finance both for working capital requirements such as payments for raw materials and salaries to its employees and fixed capital expenditure. such as the purchase of machinery for – building or to expand its production capacity. Some examples gives share picture of how companies need to raise funds from the capital market. Idea cellular decided to enter the Indian capital market for its needs to expand. In this topic, you will study concepts like placement initial public offer and capital markets. Which you take come across in the example of Idea cellular business raise these funds from various sources. In …

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Financial Market

Small and Happy Family

Small and Happy family – The family is the smallest but important unit of society. The parents and their children join together to form a family. When a family gets a good house to live in, clothes to wear and bread to eat is known as happy family. If proper resources are available for the education of children, then we call such a family a happy family. Families Past and Present There was a time when children were considered to be the gift of God. The one who has more children, people use to consider that person very lucky. There was no shortage of food and water. There was not even a name of inflation. People used to eat food …

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Small and Happy Family

Unemployment

Unemployment is a serious problem that our government faces. Our leaders are trying their utmost best to solve it wisely. If it is not solved sooner, a social revolution may take plea to have its solution. The main cause of unemployment is the repaid growth of population. Since independence, the populations of India has increased by threes times its total. Unemployment When people multiply, there raises the problems of unemployment and it becomes difficult for the government to provide employment to a sufficient number of people. As a matter of principle, it becomes the duty of government to provide employment to all as far as possible and we are blessed that our government is taking keen interest to solve this …

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Unemployment

Factor affecting capital budgeting decision

capital budgeting, A number of project are often available to a business to invest in but each product has to be evaluated carefully. Depending upon the returns a particular project is either selected or rejected if there is only one project. it really is the term of the rate of returns investment and its capital ability with the industries average is seen there are certain factors which affect capital budgeting decision. The cash flow of the project: when a company takes and investment decisions involving huge amount it expects to generate some cash flow over a period this cash flow are in the form of series of cash receipts and payments over the life of an investment the amount of …

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Factor affecting capital budgeting decision

Financial Management

All finance come at some cost it is quite imperative that it needs to be carefully managed financially. Management is concerned with the optimal requirement as well as the usage of finance for optimal procurement, different available sources of finance are identified and compared in term of their costs and associated risks. Similarly, the finance of procured need to be invested in a manner that the returns from the investment exceed. The cost at which the government has taken place financial management at reducing the cost of procuring. Keeping at the risk under control and achieving effective employment of such finds it also at insurance availability of element. Whenever required as well as avoiding idol finance needless to influences the …

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Financial Management

Consumer Rights

The consumer protection act provides for six right to the consumer protection council set up under the act are intended to promote and protect the various rights of consumers. Consumer Rights include the following. Right to safety Right to be informed Right to choose Right to be heard Right to seek redressal Right to consumer education Current AffairsEconomy Consumer Rights 1. Right to safety: The consumer has a right to be protected against good and services. Which are hazardous to life and health for instance electrical appliance. Which are manufactured with substandard product or do not conform to the safety norm, might cause serious injury the consumers are educated that they should use electrical appliances. Which are ISI marketed as …

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Consumer Rights

Consumer Protection

Consumer protection refers to protecting the interest of consumers. The producer should produce good keep in mind the requirements of consumers and satisfy the consumer. But it is observed that this application is neglected by some businessman and they are involved in the unfair practices so there is a need for consumer protection. Consumer Protection A consumer is said to be a king in a free market economy. The earlier approach of caveat acted which means let the buyer be aware. Has now been changed caveat venditor. Let the seller be aware however with growing competition and in an attempt to increase their sales and market share manufacturer and service provider may be tempted to engage in on scalp. Plus …

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Consumer Protection

Inflation

Inflation refers to the sustained increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time. The index number of prices: an increase in the index number of prices reflects the condition of inflation in an economy.a. Wholesale price index: WPI refers to the index that measures the changes in the price of goods at the wholesale market. Consumer price index (CPI): consumer price index measures changes in the price level of a market basket of consumer goods and services purchased by household. GDP deflator: it measures the average level of prices of all the goods and services that makes up GDP. the rate of inflation increases with increase in the value of …

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Inflation

Infrastructure development for Future generation

The government has emphasized on creating world-class infrastructure for building a new India. Infrastructure development presents the status of any country. Infrastructure development It has undertaken various projects to improve the present conditions of Infrastructure. Some projects are such as The Sagarmala Project (for accelerating port-led development) The Bharatmala Project (to link India from west to east) The Mumbai trans harbour link Project (for building the country’s largest sea bridge) The Setu Bharatam Project (making national highways free of railway level crossing) It also connects various villages through the construction of roads providing significant relief to the rural masses. PM Awas Yojana The government has launched a comprehensive mission “housing for all by 2022”. The scheme aims to construct more …

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Infrastructure development for Future generation

Steps taken to improve Jobs after higher education

Jobs after Higher education system has many educational streams. India is the world’s largest democratic country. With increasing population, Competition is increasing between peoples. Jobs after higher education Evenmore, in order to enhance job orientation and employability, the following steps have been taken: There are 1109 skill oriented courses being run by UGC and All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE). In which approximately 40,000 students are receiving skill training with education. New and updated vocational cariculla are being developed in line with industry demand in B.Voc. programmes. AICTE has launched a internship portal to facilitate industry internship to students. This is the most successful step for Jobs after higher education. Wheebox employability skill test for all pre final and …

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Steps taken to improve Jobs after higher education

Role of skill development in the $5 trillion economy

Prime minister has set a target for India to be a $5 trillion economy by 2024. skill development is the key in the various sectors that would drive this growth. India having half of its population below the age of 25, the country has the world’s youngest population. According to the economic survey, The working age population in the country will grow by roughly 97 lakh per year during the coming decade and 42 lakh per year in the 2030. Central and State Skill development programmes Here is a list which presents the schemes of government for skill development. Central: Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana Skills acquisition and Knowledge awareness for livelihood promotion (SANKALP) UDAAN (Special industry initiative for J …

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Role of skill development in the $5 trillion economy

Five Year Plans of India

From 1947 to 2017;In India economy was based on the concept of planning. The concept of economic planning in India is derived from Russia. Planning was done by Planning Commission of India. They publish Five Year Plans of India on every five years. The Planning commission was abolished in 2014 replaced by NITI Ayog. It is history. Now, We will analyse all the 12 five year plans of India. Timeline of Five Year Plans The timeline of Five Year Plans was Plan From Till 1st 1951 1956 2nd 1956 1961 3rd 1961 1966 Plan Holidays 1966 1969 4th 1969 1974 5th 1974 1978 Rolling Plan 1978 1980 6th 1980 1985 7th 1985 1990 Annual Plans 1990 1992 8th 1992 1997 9th 1997 …

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DDUGU BA Scheme
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