History

Indian Ancient History

Indian Ancient History Pre historic Ages Prehistoric period is divided into three sections. Stone Age Stone age is divided into three periods. Paleolithic age In starting of paleolithic age the tools where usually made of hard rock. In middle period of paleolithic age a bit change account in the shape of tools made of stones are bones. At last of this period human lives as Nomadic hunter gatherers. Mesolithic age It ended with the introduction of agriculture. Neolithic age It was an age of polished tool culture. Tool making became an important profession and a variety of polished tools were manufactured. They learnt the art of poetry and their parts where will made and decorated with paintings. They discovered the …

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Indian Modern History

Indian Modern History The Mughal Emperor Jahangir given permission to the British East India Company in 1617. As a result of three Carnatic Wars the British East India company and exclusive control over entire Carnatic region of India. The border dispute between Nepal and British India which happened after 1801. Had caused the Anglo Nepal war of 1814-16 Their Policy was sometimes summed up as divide and rule taking advantage of the inmate fostering between various princely states and social and religious groups. Indian Modern History Governors Robert Clive (1757-1760) Henry Vansittart (1760-1764) Robert Clive (1765-1766) Harry Vere 1st (1767-1769) John Cartier (1769-1772) Warren Hasting (1772-1774) Charles Cornwallis (1786-1793) Richard Wellesley (1798-1805) Charles Cornwallis (1805-1848) James Brown-Ramsay (1848-1854) Events and …

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IAS Mains History Questions

IAS Mains History Questions asked in previous years are given below. First we will see the syllabus of history then yearwise papers. IAS Mains History Syllabus Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present significant events, personalities, issues. The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors or contributions from different parts of the country. Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country. History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc. – their forms and effect on the society. IAS Mains History Questions 2013 Though not very useful from the point of view of a connected political …

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IAS Mains History Questions

Caste system and Social Reform

The caste system based on profession gradually developed and became rigid. While the Brahmans the Kshatriyas and the Vaisyas enjoyed a higher status, the condition of the Shudras and the Chandalas was pitiable. The Chandalas were supposed to live outside the villages. They were barred from drawing water from the wells used by the upper castes. They could not enter the temples or recite verses from the Vedas and Shastras. The upper caste people refrained from eating or drinking anything that had been touched by the untouchables. As a result of the caste system, the Hindu society got divided into many castes and sub-castes and resulted in a wide gulf between different sections of the society. It resulted in a …

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British and Decline Of Indian Handicrafts

Indian handicrafts and textiles were very popular and in high demand in Europe and in the British markets. The officials of the East India Company bought these products at very cheap rates and sold them back in the European and British countries at much higher rates. Thus, the East India Company prospered by huge profits. Due to their high quality and excellent crafts- a manship, Indian handicrafts, particularly textiles, became even more popular abroad and their demand kept on increasing. Decline Of Indian Handicrafts Our system acts very much like a sponge, drawing up all the good things from the banks of the Thames. John Sullivan , President , Board of Revenue, Madras The statement is very true when viewed …

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British and Decline Of Indian Handicrafts

Tribal Livelihood

The term tribe is used in many different contexts to refer to a category of human social group. Tribal is made up from the word tribe. Activities of Tribals Tribal people engages io agrioutural activities. The Baiga tribals of Central India lived only on forest produce and considered it a shame to work as labourers for others. The tribal areas were often penetrated by traders, moneylenders or contractors. The traders came to sell their goods either at higher prices or in exchange of forest produce. The money lenders gave loans to the tribals at high rates of interest. The contractors came in search of labour at low prices. Thus, to make their ends meet, the dependency of the tribals on …

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Tribal Livelihood

British Empire Consolidation

After an aggressive policy of territorial expansion, the British thought about the protection of their newly acquired provinces. British Empire were constantly threatened by the French, the Russians and the Americans. It was now important for them to secure the north-west frontiers of India. This resulted in two wars with Afghanistan: The First Afghan War (1839-42) The Second Afghan War (1878-80) As a final result, a permanent British resident was to be stationed at Kabul. The British took control of the Kurrane and Mishni passes, in order to prevent any foreign intervention from this side. The Annexation of Sindh was important for the defence of English territories from the Russians. British Empire After signing some peace – treaties with the …

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British Conquest of Bengal

British Conquest of Bengal – In the eighteenth century, Bengal was a rich province. It also flourished well in trade and commerce. The English had established their first factory in Bengal in 1651, by the permission of Sultan Shah Shuja, then Subedar of Bengal. Further, the British got the zamindari of three villages – Sutanuti, Kalikata and Govindpur. British Conquest of Bengal in 1698 from Subedar Azim-us-Shan. In 1717, the Mughal Emperor Farrukhsiyar granted several trading privileges to the East India Company. The company now became entitled to buy and sell anything from Bengal paying without custom duties. It also became free to carry goods to and from Bengal. Alivardi Khan was the ruler of Bengal. He kept a close …

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European in India

First European Portuguese who discovered a direct sea route to India was Vasco da Gama. He arrived at Calicut seaport of India. So here in Article, we will see how established European in India. European in India Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia and is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and Asia to the east. Let’s us study the Europeans who came in India and establishes their empire. The Portuguese in India The Dutch in India The British in India The Portuguese in India India had commercial relations with …

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History Time Frame

The History time Frame is somewhat different in different parts of the world. Frame under modern history also has the same presence. In Europe, the medieval history is said to have begun in the 6th century and ends in the 15th century A.D., while in India, this period starts with the 8th century and ends with the 18th century A.D. That is, India started witnessing remarkable changes in its political, economic, social and cultural life from the later part of the 18th century. The modern period extends roughly from the middle of the 18th century to contemporary times. That is, this period covers about 250 years of the history of India. time frame under history also changes with the focus …

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Modern History Sources

Clues and evidence on the basis of which we write history, are known as the sources of history. When we talk about Modern History Sources then it will be more unique. Historians study different types of sources to learn about the past. The sources that they choose depend upon the period of their study and the nature of their investigation. Modern History Sources Like the Ancient and Medieval Periods, the sources of History of Modern India are also divided into the following categories: Official Records Surveys Other Sources Official Records The official records of the British administration are an important source for the study of Modern Period. The British laid great emphasis on documenting. They got every instruction, plan policy, …

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Indian culture uniqueness

Every culture is unique. It has its traditional values, religion, dance, festivals, music, and cloth. This topic involves an abundant number of information because it is almost unlimited. Indian culture is one of the oldest. This country always had an urban civilization. Astonishing cultural diversity throughout the whole country makes one to be amazed. Could you imagine that the South, North, and Northeast of India have their own traditions and culture? It is an incredible thing to observe such immense variety in culture within one country. Indian cuisine, religion, and philosophy has a huge impact on the whole world. Although this is a short essay on Indian culture, a person may find something new and interesting for him. So, continue …

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Indian culture uniqueness

प्रसिद्ध गुफाएं स्तूप एवं चैत्य

आज प्राचीन काल महत्वपूर्ण गुफाएं, स्तूप, चैत्य गृह के बारे में और अधिक जनेगे। गुफाएं अजंता गुफाएं एलोरा गुफाएं अमरावती एलिफेंटा बाघ की गुफा अजंता गुफाएं अजंता गुफाएं जलगांव से 64 किलोमीटर या औरंगाबाद से 104 किलोमीटर की दूरी पर स्थित हैं किंतु इतना विदित है की गुफाओं का निर्माण ईसा से 2 शताब्दी पूर्व प्रारंभ हुआ यह तथ्य गुफा नंबर 9 और 10 के चित्र और लेखों से सिद्ध होता है अजंता की गुफाओं का निर्माण कार्य लगभग 1000 वर्ष तक चला। अजंता में कुल 30 गुफाएं हैं। उनमें पांच आयत मंदिर और शेष जनसभा और निवास के लिए बड़े हाल है। चाहत हाल में पत्थर का काम आश्चर्यजनक है। गुफाओं के बाहरी भाग पर अत्यधिक सजावट है। अजंता …

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गुफाए

आधुनिक भारत का इतिहास

आधुनिक भारत का इतिहास के अंतर्गत हम लोग देखेंगे कैसे भारत में यूरोपीय व्यापारिक कंपनियों का आगमन होता है फिर किस तरीके से अंग्रेज अपना आधिपत्य जमाते हैं और उसी बीच में 1857 का विद्रोह होता है जिस को दबा दिया जाता है फिर कुछ सामाजिक और धार्मिक सुधार आंदोलन होते हैं और उसके बाद में भारत का स्वतंत्रता आंदोलन जिसमें कुछ क्रांतिकारियों से संबंधित घटनाएं और गवर्नर जनरल वायसराय और महत्वपूर्ण विद्रोह जिन्होंने भारत को स्वतंत्रता दिलाने में मदद की के बारे में हम लोग संक्षिप्त अध्ययन करेंगे। भारत में यूरोपीय व्यापारिक कंपनियों का आगमन वह समय काफी पुराना था जब भारत को सोने की चिड़िया कहा जाता था उसके कई वर्ष बाद 1498 ईस्वी में वास्कोडिगामा केरल के …

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Sarkari Focus

मध्यकालीन भारत का इतिहास

इस आर्टिकल के अंतर्गत हम लोग मध्यकालीन भारत का इतिहास का अध्ययन करेंगे जिसमें हम लोग देखेंगे कैसे भारत पर मुस्लिम का आक्रमण होता है और फिर गुलाम वंश खिलजी वंश तुगलक वंश लोदी वंश भक्ति तथा सूफी आंदोलन और साथ में विजयनगर साम्राज्य और बहमनी राज्य का भी ऐतिहासिक अध्ययन करेंगे। उसके बाद मुगल साम्राज्य जिसमें बाबर हुमायूं शेरशाह सूरी अकबर जहांगीर शाहजहां औरंगजेब और मराठों के उत्कर्ष को देखेंगे। मध्यकालीन भारत का इतिहास भारत पर मुस्लिम आक्रमण दिल्ली सल्तनत मुगल साम्राज्य भारत पर मुस्लिम आक्रमण भारत में पहला सफल मुस्लिम आक्रमण मोहम्मद बिन कासिम ने 712 ईसवी में किया था। उसने सिंध एवं मुल्तान को जीत लिया था। महमूद गजनवी ने 1001 से 1027 ईसवी के बीच भारत …

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मध्यकालीन भारत का इतिहास

प्राचीन भारत का इतिहास

भारतीय इतिहास को हम लोग तीन भागों में पढ़ेंगे। प्राचीन भारत, मध्यकालीन भारत और आधुनिक भारत, आज प्राचीन भारत का इतिहास का  करेंगे  प्राचीन भारत प्राचीन प्राचीन भारत के अंतर्गत हम लोग भारतीय इतिहास के स्रोत, पाषाण काल, सिंधु घाटी सभ्यता,वैदिक काल, उत्तर वैदिक काल, धार्मिक आंदोलन मगध साम्राज्य मौर्य साम्राज्य मौर्योत्तर काल में विदेशी आक्रमण गुप्त साम्राज्य गुप्तोत्तर वंश के मुख्य बिंदुओं को जानेंगे। भारतीय इतिहास के स्रोत मुख्यतः 4 स्रोतों से भारतीय इतिहास के विषय में जानकारी प्राप्त कर सकते है। धर्म ग्रंथ ऐतिहासिक धर्म ग्रंथ विदेशियों का विवरण पुरातत्व संबंधी साक्ष्य जैसा कि चाणक्य द्वारा रचित अर्थशास्त्र नामक पुस्तक में मौर्य कालीन इतिहास की जानकारी मिलती है। कल्हण द्वारा रचित राजतरंगिणी में कश्मीर के इतिहास की जानकारी मिलती …

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