General Study

वैद्युत आवेश एवं वैद्युत क्षेत्र

मात्रक, विमाए व राशियों के प्रकार राशि का नाम सदिश/अदिश राशि मात्रक विमाए बल (F) सदिश राशि न्यूटन [MLT-2] आवेश (q) अदिश राशि कूलाम [AT] वैद्युत क्षेत्र की तीव्रता (E) सदिश राशि न्यूटन प्रति कूलाम [MLT-3A] वैद्युत द्विध्रुव का आघूर्ण (p) सदिश राशि कूलाम मीटर [LAT] वैद्युत द्विध्रुव के बलयुगम का आघूर्ण (τ)

वैद्युत आवेश एवं वैद्युत क्षेत्र

Indian Ministries and their objective

Indian Ministries and their objective, Ministries are usually immediate subdivisions of the cabinet (the executive branch of the government), and subordinate to its chief executive who is called prime minister, chief minister, president, minister-president or (federal) chancellor. Indian Ministries and their objective S.N. NAME DEPARTMENTS OBJECTIVE 1. Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare Department of Agriculture Research and Education Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries to replicate the agricultural e-governance projects being carried in different states at a national level and through a variety of media.basic and operation research, technological development, improving linkages between various organisations and state governments across the country. to increase the productivity of livestock and aquaculture. 2. Ministry of …

Indian Ministries and their objective Read More »

Indian Ministries and their objective

Water Colour Purity

In this article of Water Colour & Purity, we will see scientifically about the colour of water, the spherical shape of a liquid drop, the colour of a waterfall and at last the purity of water. Water Colour Purity Water is transparent and nearly colourless liquid. Waterdrop is spherical because the liquid drop tends to be in a state of minimum surface area. Reason of Spherical shape of the water drop is the force. It is Surface tension that try to hold the droplet together. Mathematically, sphere has the smallest surface volumes, compared to other geometric shapes. In absence of the external force liquid always want to attain minimum surface area and got spherical shape. Waterfall When all colour gets reflected …

Water Colour Purity Read More »

Indian Ancient History

Indian Ancient History Pre historic Ages Prehistoric period is divided into three sections. Stone Age Stone age is divided into three periods. Paleolithic age In starting of paleolithic age the tools where usually made of hard rock. In middle period of paleolithic age a bit change account in the shape of tools made of stones are bones. At last of this period human lives as Nomadic hunter gatherers. Mesolithic age It ended with the introduction of agriculture. Neolithic age It was an age of polished tool culture. Tool making became an important profession and a variety of polished tools were manufactured. They learnt the art of poetry and their parts where will made and decorated with paintings. They discovered the …

Indian Ancient History Read More »

Vehicle Emission

Vehicle Emission is human-made Problem and human can control it. So, you very well know what is vehicle emission. in this article, First I will discuss a problem. What is Vehicle Emission ? The Pollutants emitted from an automotive engine during the combustion process is known as vehicle emission. During the process of it mainly 3 gases are emitted which are as following Carbon mono oxide (CO) Hydrocarbon (HC) Oxide of nitrogen (NOx) These gases are very harmful which is coming from our vehicles. if there are many vehicles in the area many pollution present there and every gas causes different deceases. Back PainDaily News Analysis Why Vehicle Emission is harmful? It is harmful because it emits harmful gases for the environment which …

Vehicle Emission Read More »

Vehicle Emission

Acid Rain

Acid Rain is a specific form of precipitation which is acidic. It has elevated levels of hydrogen ions. It can harmful effect on plants aquatic animal, infrastructure. Acid Rain occurs when certain emissions come into contact with the water of the atmosphere. Learn everything about it in this article and info graphic. it is a precipitate in any of the following forms  Rain  Snow  Sleet  fog Which contains high level of acid which are  Sulfuric acid Nitric acid Which are the constituent of following  70% derived from oxydation and hydrolysis of Sulfur die oxide and hydrogen sulfide. 30% derived from various nitric oxides and other compounds. Both Sulphur and nitrogen emission attributed to the burning of the fossil fuels. Last …

Acid Rain Read More »

Sarkari Focus

Syllabus and Sources of IAS Mains

Syllabus and Sources of IAS Mains gives an idea what to read what not to read which source is best for the syllabus discussed as open book. GS-I SECTION-I    {HISTORY} Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times. Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present significant events, personalities, issues. The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors or contributions from different parts of the country. Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country. History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc. – their forms and …

Syllabus and Sources of IAS Mains Read More »

Syllabus and Sources of IAS Mains

Indian Modern History

Indian Modern History The Mughal Emperor Jahangir given permission to the British East India Company in 1617. As a result of three Carnatic Wars the British East India company and exclusive control over entire Carnatic region of India. The border dispute between Nepal and British India which happened after 1801. Had caused the Anglo Nepal war of 1814-16 Their Policy was sometimes summed up as divide and rule taking advantage of the inmate fostering between various princely states and social and religious groups. Indian Modern History Governors Robert Clive (1757-1760) Henry Vansittart (1760-1764) Robert Clive (1765-1766) Harry Vere 1st (1767-1769) John Cartier (1769-1772) Warren Hasting (1772-1774) Charles Cornwallis (1786-1793) Richard Wellesley (1798-1805) Charles Cornwallis (1805-1848) James Brown-Ramsay (1848-1854) Events and …

Indian Modern History Read More »

british, flag, british empire

Understanding Diversity

Diversity means a range of different things. It means understanding that each individual is unique, and recognising our individual differences. These can be along the dimensions of race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socio-economic status, age, physical abilities, religious beliefs, political beliefs, or other ideologies. What is Diversity? If anyone said to make a picture of human then it will easily seen that always the images are not same. This is because everyone has a unique drawing style. I like wearing shirt my room partner like wearing kurta and my neighbor like wearing T-shirt. because everyone wants wearing his favourite dress. I like read write in hindi and english and playing cricketbutmy room partner read in urdu and like to play basket ball. …

Understanding Diversity Read More »

Understanding Diversity

IAS Mains History Questions

IAS Mains History Questions asked in previous years are given below. First we will see the syllabus of history then yearwise papers. IAS Mains History Syllabus Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present significant events, personalities, issues. The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors or contributions from different parts of the country. Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country. History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc. – their forms and effect on the society. IAS Mains History Questions 2013 Though not very useful from the point of view of a connected political …

IAS Mains History Questions Read More »

IAS Mains History Questions

Our Country India

Our Country India is very diverse. Where is India situated we will see in the geographical sense. India is a country with vast geographical expanse. The Bay of Bengal in the east. The Arabian Sea in the west. The Himalayan in the north. Indian Ocean in the south. 2900 km, Kashmir to Kanyakumari 3200 km, Kuchchh to Arunachal Pradesh India has great diversity in landforms, Climate, Natural Vegetation, Wildlife. Seven countries that share boundary with India Afghanistan Pakistan China Nepal Bhutan Bangladesh Myanmar Sri lanka is separated by palk strait. Our Country India India Location India can be located by the following points. Located in northern hemisphere. Tropic of Cancer divides the country into two equal parts. From Left to …

Our Country India Read More »

Our Country India

Location of India

What is the Location of India? wherein India situated in the context of the world? Location of India India Located in the northern hemisphere of the earth. India is a country in South Asia. Tropic of cancer divided the country into two equal parts. 68°7′ E – 97°25′ E Territory from west to east 37°6′ N – 8°4′ N territory from north to south The longitude 82°30’E taken as the Indian standard time. The Bay of Bengal in the east. The Arabian Sea in the west. The Himalayan in the north. Indian Ocean in the south. 2933 km, Kashmir to Kanyakumari. 3214 km, Kutch to Arunachal Pradesh. Seven countries that share a boundary with Location of India Afghanistan Pakistan China …

Location of India Read More »

Location of India

Diversity and discrimination

In the last post, we have seen that peoples are very diverse in India. In this chapter talking about the discrimination caused by the diversity means the relation of diversity and discrimination. There are 8 major religions in the world. More than 1600 languages that are peoples mother’s tongue. More than hundred dance forms. Rural and urban areas have different lifestyle. Prejudice it means to judge other people negatively and think that only one way is the best and right way to do things we often end up not respecting others who may prefer to do things differently. Example- if we think english is the best language and other language are not important then we judging other language negatively. We …

Diversity and discrimination Read More »

Diversity and discrimination

Indian Constitution Amendment

Like any other written constitution, the constitution of India also provides for amendment. The procedure is neither easy as in Britain nor as difficult as in the USA. In part XX with Article 368 specially made for amendment by the power of parliament. But in 1973 case, Supreme Court ruled that the Parliament cannot amend those provision which forms the “basic structure” of the constitution. Originally on 26 November 1950 Presently in 2018 One PreambleXXII Parts covering 1-395 articles.8 Schedules  One PreambleXXII Parts covering 1-395 articles.12 Schedules101 Amendments Basic Features of Indian Constitution The following have emerged as basic features of indian constitution. Supremacy of the constitution Sovereign democratic Republican nature of Indian polity The secular character of the constitution …

Indian Constitution Amendment Read More »

Indian Constitution Features

Indian Constitution is full of features. Indian Constitution Features are as follows: Lengthiest Written Constitution Drawn from various sources Blend of rigidity and flexibility  Federal with unitary bias  Parliamentary form of Government Synthesis of parliamentary  Sovereignty and Judicial Supremacy Integrated and independent Judiciary Fundamental rights  Directive principle of State policy (DPSP) Fundamental duties  A secular state  Universal adult franchise  Single citizenship Emergency provision

Constituent Assembly

In November 1946, by cabinet mission plan Hindu majority India constituted a constituent assembly having the following features. Total strength was 389. 296 was from British India and 93 from princely States. Each province and princely state where to be allotted seats in proportion to their respective population. i.e. one seat was to be allotted for every million population. Seats allotted to each British province were to be decided among the three communities Muslim sheikhs and all other in proportion to their populations. Thus, as a result, Constituent assembly was to be a partially elected and partially nominated body. The members where to be indirectly elected by the members of the provincial assemblies who themselves were elected on a limited …

Constituent Assembly Read More »

Constituent Assembly

Indian Constitution Sources

Features in the Indian Constitution was taken from many sources. Some of them was: Government of India act 1935 Federal Schemeoffice of governorJudiciaryPublic Service CommissionEmergency provisionsAdministrative details British Constitution parliamentary governmentrule of lawlegislative procedureSingle citizenshipCabinet systemPrerogative WritsParliamentary privileges and bicameralism  US Constitution Fundamental rightsIndependence of JudiciaryJudicial reviewImpeachment of the PresidentRemoval of Supreme Court and High Court JudgesVice president as the ex officio Chairman of Rajya SabhaPreamble French Constitution Republic and ideals of LibertyEquality and fraternity in the Preamble Irish Constitution Directive principle of State PolicyNomination of members of Rajya SabhaMethod of Election of President Constitution of Canada Federation with a strong CentreVesting of residuary power in theCentre appointment of State Governor by CentreAdvisory jurisdiction of the supreme court Australian constitution …

Indian Constitution Sources Read More »

Indian Constitution Preamble

The Constituent Assembly debated the Preamble on 17th October 1949. The debates around the Preamble revolved around the name of India and inclusion of ‘God’ and ‘Gandhi’. The Assembly adopted the Preamble as presented by the Drafting Committee. Indian Constitution Preamble The Indian Constitution preamble is as follows: WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE, social, economic and political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation; IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO …

Indian Constitution Preamble Read More »

Indian Constitution Preamble

Invertebrates

Even through some organisms, such as sponges, jellyfish and sea anemones, look like vegetables they belong to the animal kingdom. Many of these simple Invertebrates are unable to move from one place to another. Some even lack certain tissues or an entire respiratory or digestive system. Other, more developed especially species such as squid and octopus can move about and have become skilled marine predators. Cephalopods are the most highly evolved molluscs. Their heads have highly developed eyes, a mouth with two hornlike jaws, and tentacles with suckers to trap their prey. Some cephalopods live in deep sea waters, whereas others stay close to shore. Characteristics of Invertebrates Many of the numerous invertebrates on the earth live in the ocean. …

Invertebrates Read More »

Invertebrates

Fish and Amphibians

Fishes: Fish were the first vertebrates with bony skeleton to appear on the earth. They doubtless from the most numerous group of vertebrates. Unlike today’s fish, the earliest fish had no scales, filns aur jawbone, but they did have a type of dorsal fin. Over time they have been changing in form and size to adopt to different environments in both freshwater and saltwater. Their bodies are generally streamlined, being covered with smooth scales and have fins that enable them to move with energy, direction and stability. In place of lungs, these complex creature normally breathe through gills that capture oxygen dissolved in the water and they are cold blooded. Amphibians The word amphibians made of amphi and bios. Amphi …

Fish and Amphibians Read More »

Fishes

Reptiles

Colour plays a very important role in the life of iguanas and lizards. It helps to differentiate males and females, and when it is time to attract a male, the members of the iguana family communicate by showing bright colours and folds of skin. Another particularly that distinguishes iguanas is there covering of epidermal scales. In addition like all the tiles day or not capable of generating internal heat, so they depend on external factor to maintain their body temperature. Skin with scales Reptiles are vertebrate, meaning that they or animal with a spinal column. There skin is hard, dry and flaky. Like birds, most reptile 7 born from eggs deposit on land. The offspring hatch fully formed without passing …

Reptiles Read More »

Reptiles

Birds

Many scientists maintain that birds descended from dinosaurs because fossils of dinosaur specimens with feathers have been found. As a group, birds have exceptional eyesight – they have the largest eyes in relation to the size of their bodies. In addition, they have very light bones, which are suitable for flight. Just like their bills, birds’ fleet have also changed in accordance with the functions and particular needs of each species. For instance walking birds like other vertebrate groups – display a mark the tendency toward having a reduced number of toes, ostriches. Some birds of prey, such as eagles, have fleet that are veritable hooks. Skeleton and Masculature Both light weight and resistant, the skeleton of birds underwent important …

Birds Read More »

Birds

Mammals

All mammals have stereoscopic vision, which gives them depth perception. Moreover, in the case of hunters such as tigers, their night vision is six times keener than that of humans. There are many species that have a very keen sense of smell, and the sense of taste is closely linked to that of smell. Hair, too, performs various functions in these animals’ lives – conserving body heat, providing protection and serving as camouflage. Mammals Mammals share a series of characteristics that distinguish their class: a body covered by hair, the birth of live young and the feeding of newborns on milk produced by the females mammary glands. All breathe through lungs and all processes a closed circulatory system and the …

Mammals Read More »

Mammals Qualities

Amazing Animals

From the frozen poles to the sunless depths of ocean, from highest mountains to arid deserts, every region of our planet has been colonized by animals. Animals live in interactive partnerships with other species and with their physical environments. 🐂🐃🐅🐆🐇🐋🐌🐏🐐🐕🐖🐘🐙🐨🐩🐪🐫🐭🐮🐯🐳🐴🐶🐷🦌🦖🦓 Without animals, human could not survive. Amazing Animals Modern science is showing us how all living things are interconnected in complex ecosystem. By learning more about animals, we will be better able to conserve the natural world and to protect the earth’s wildlife for future generation. The family of Animals looks at five groups of animals: Mammals Birds Reptiles Fish and Amphibians Invertebrates 1. Mammals Mammals are the smallest group, but the mammals include the largest animal, the blue whale. …

Amazing Animals Read More »

Birds

Plateaus – Definition, Types, Formation, Indian Plateau

A Plateau is a large high area of flat land. It is also known as a high plain or a tableland. Plateaus can be formed by a number of processes, including upwelling of volcanic magma, extrusion of lava, and erosion by water and glaciers. Formation– can be formed by many processes including upwelling of volcanic magma, extrusion of lava, and erosion by water and glaciers. The largest and highest plateau in the world is the Tibetan Plateau. Sometimes Tibetan Plateau is also known as the roof of the world. Types of Plateau According to surrounding environment, Plateaus are of three types. Intermontane Piedmont Continental Indian Plateau Deccan Plateau is a largest plateau in India, making up the majority of the …

Plateaus – Definition, Types, Formation, Indian Plateau Read More »

Indian Plateau, Plateau

Indian Mountains Hills

Indian Mountains Hills is very important topic in Geography subject. Most geologists classify a mountain as A landform that rises at least 1,000 feet (300 meters) or more above its surrounding area. Mountains are divided into four main types: upwarped, volcanic, fault-block, and folded (complex). A hill is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain. hills are important because they create variety and intensity Indian Mountains Hills There are major seven Mountain ranges in India and those are the Himalaya, Aravalli, Eastern Ghats, Nilgiri, Shivalik, Vindhya, and Satpura mountain ranges. Kangchenjunga lies on the India–Nepal border. It is the highest mountain peak located in India. The Most Popular Hills In India are: 1.Shivalik Hills 2.Anamalai Hills 3.Ashambu Hills 4.Cardamom …

Indian Mountains Hills Read More »

Indian Mountains Hills

Caste system and Social Reform

The caste system based on profession gradually developed and became rigid. While the Brahmans the Kshatriyas and the Vaisyas enjoyed a higher status, the condition of the Shudras and the Chandalas was pitiable. The Chandalas were supposed to live outside the villages. They were barred from drawing water from the wells used by the upper castes. They could not enter the temples or recite verses from the Vedas and Shastras. The upper caste people refrained from eating or drinking anything that had been touched by the untouchables. As a result of the caste system, the Hindu society got divided into many castes and sub-castes and resulted in a wide gulf between different sections of the society. It resulted in a …

Caste system and Social Reform Read More »

british, flag, british empire

Law Making

In ancient India, there were many overlapping local laws. Different communities enjoyed different degrees of autonomy in administering Law Making That is why, some scholars believe that it was the British colonialists who introduced the rule of law in India. However, some historians do not agree with this view. They refuse this claim on the following grounds: The British law was arbitrary. For example, the Sedition Act of 1870 laid down that any person protesting or criticising the British government could be arrested without appropriate trial. The Indian nationalists played an important role in the development of the legal sphere in British India. They began to protest and criticise the arbitrary law of the Britishers. By the end of the …

Law Making Read More »

Constitution, Law making

Constitution

A Constitution is a fundamental legal which the government of a country functions, These rules or laws are called the basic laws these laws are superior to all the laws of a country. That is, the laws written in the Constitution act as the source according to which rules and regulations of governing a country are framed. Every law enacted by the government has to be in conformity with the Constitution. But, the constitution constantly grows and evolves according to the needs, requirements and aspirations of the people and functioning institutions. Constitution A Constitution signifies Independence. It establishes the main organs of the government – the legislature, the executive and the Judiciary. A Constitution defines the powers and responsibilities of …

Constitution Read More »

Constitution, Law making

Secularism

Secularism refers to the belief that religion should not be involved in the organisation of a society. A secular state is one in which the State does not officially promote any particular religion as the State religion. India is a secular State. Here, all religions are treated with equal respect every citizen of India has the right to practise his/her own religion. All citizens are equal in the eyes of the law. Our country neither favour any particular religion, nor does it discriminate against any religion. The government cannot formulate such policy which discriminates between various religious communities that live in India. In short, secularism refers to the separation of religion from the State. Every religion has the freedom to …

Secularism Read More »

Secularism