Polity

Electoral Politics

Electoral Politics – An election is a way by which people can choose their candidate or their preferences in a representative democracy or other forms of government. Most democratic countries hold new elections for their national legislature every few years. What elections do is select representatives for the local areas or the areas in which they work. Electoral Politics In this topic, we will look at how these representatives are elected.  We begin by understanding why elections are necessary and useful in a democracy.  We try to understand how electoral competition among parties serves the people.  We then go on to ask what makes an election democratic. The basic idea here is to distinguish democratic elections from non-democratic elections. The …

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Electoral Politics

Constitutional Design

In a democracy, the rulers are not free to do what they like.  There are certain basic rules that the citizens and the government have to follow.  All such rules together are called constitutions.  As the supreme law of the country, the constitution determines the rights of citizens, the powers of the government, and how the government should function. Constitutional Design In this topic we ask some basic questions about the constitutional design of a democracy.  Why do we need a constitution?  How are the constitutions drawn up?  Who designs them and in what way?  What are the values that shape the constitutions in democratic states?  Once a constitution is accepted, can we make changes later as required by the …

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Indian Constitution, The Judiciary

The Judiciary

The Judiciary The judiciary is also known as the judicial system, judicial branch, judicative branch, and court or judiciary system. It is the system of courts that adjudicates legal disputes and interprets, defends, and applies the law in legal cases. One final time to the story of Office Memorandum that we started with. This time let us not recall the story, but imagine how different the story could have been. Remember, the story came to a satisfactory end because the Supreme Court gave a verdict that was accepted by everyone. Imagine what would have happened in the following situations: If there was nothing like a Supreme Court in the country. Even if there was a Supreme Court, if it had …

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Indian Constitution, The Judiciary

Why Do We Need a Constitution?

India’s Constitution is the supreme law of India. It defines the Government’s fundamental political values, policies, processes, powers, rights, and duties. It helps in the relationship between the people and government. The South African example is a good way to understand why we need a constitution and what do constitutions do. The oppressor and the oppressed in this new democracy were planning to live together as equals. It was not going to be easy for them to trust each other. They had their fears. They wanted to safeguard their interests. The black majority was keen to ensure that the democratic principle of majority rule was not compromised. They wanted substantial social and economic rights. The white minority was keen to …

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Indian Constitution, The Judiciary

Working of Institutions

Democracy is not just about people electing their rulers. In a democracy, the rulers have to follow some rules and procedures. They have to work with and within institutions. This topic is about the working of such institutions. We try to understand this by looking at the manner in which major decisions are taken and implemented in our country. We also look at how disputes regarding these decisions are resolved. In this process, we come across three institutions that play a key role in major decisions – the legislature, executive, and judiciary You have already read something about these institutions. Here we shall quickly summarise those and move on to asking larger questions. In the case of each institution, we …

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Understanding Diversity

Diversity means a range of different things. It means understanding that each individual is unique, and recognising our individual differences. These can be along the dimensions of race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socio-economic status, age, physical abilities, religious beliefs, political beliefs, or other ideologies. What is Diversity? If anyone said to make a picture of human then it will easily seen that always the images are not same. This is because everyone has a unique drawing style. I like wearing shirt my room partner like wearing kurta and my neighbor like wearing T-shirt. because everyone wants wearing his favourite dress. I like read write in hindi and english and playing cricketbutmy room partner read in urdu and like to play basket ball. …

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Understanding Diversity

Diversity and discrimination

In the last post, we have seen that peoples are very diverse in India. In this chapter talking about the discrimination caused by the diversity means the relation of diversity and discrimination. There are 8 major religions in the world. More than 1600 languages that are peoples mother’s tongue. More than hundred dance forms. Rural and urban areas have different lifestyle. Prejudice it means to judge other people negatively and think that only one way is the best and right way to do things we often end up not respecting others who may prefer to do things differently. Example- if we think english is the best language and other language are not important then we judging other language negatively. We …

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Diversity and discrimination

Indian Constitution Amendment

Like any other written constitution, the constitution of India also provides for amendment. The procedure is neither easy as in Britain nor as difficult as in the USA. In part XX with Article 368 specially made for amendment by the power of parliament. But in 1973 case, Supreme Court ruled that the Parliament cannot amend those provision which forms the “basic structure” of the constitution. Originally on 26 November 1950 Presently in 2018 One PreambleXXII Parts covering 1-395 articles.8 Schedules  One PreambleXXII Parts covering 1-395 articles.12 Schedules101 Amendments Basic Features of Indian Constitution The following have emerged as basic features of indian constitution. Supremacy of the constitution Sovereign democratic Republican nature of Indian polity The secular character of the constitution …

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Indian Constitution Features

Indian Constitution is full of features. Indian Constitution Features are as follows: Lengthiest Written Constitution Drawn from various sources Blend of rigidity and flexibility  Federal with unitary bias  Parliamentary form of Government Synthesis of parliamentary  Sovereignty and Judicial Supremacy Integrated and independent Judiciary Fundamental rights  Directive principle of State policy (DPSP) Fundamental duties  A secular state  Universal adult franchise  Single citizenship Emergency provision

Constituent Assembly

In November 1946, by cabinet mission plan Hindu majority India constituted a constituent assembly having the following features. Total strength was 389. 296 was from British India and 93 from princely States. Each province and princely state where to be allotted seats in proportion to their respective population. i.e. one seat was to be allotted for every million population. Seats allotted to each British province were to be decided among the three communities Muslim sheikhs and all other in proportion to their populations. Thus, as a result, Constituent assembly was to be a partially elected and partially nominated body. The members where to be indirectly elected by the members of the provincial assemblies who themselves were elected on a limited …

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Constituent Assembly

Indian Constitution Sources

Features in the Indian Constitution was taken from many sources. Some of them was: Government of India act 1935 Federal Schemeoffice of governorJudiciaryPublic Service CommissionEmergency provisionsAdministrative details British Constitution parliamentary governmentrule of lawlegislative procedureSingle citizenshipCabinet systemPrerogative WritsParliamentary privileges and bicameralism  US Constitution Fundamental rightsIndependence of JudiciaryJudicial reviewImpeachment of the PresidentRemoval of Supreme Court and High Court JudgesVice president as the ex officio Chairman of Rajya SabhaPreamble French Constitution Republic and ideals of LibertyEquality and fraternity in the Preamble Irish Constitution Directive principle of State PolicyNomination of members of Rajya SabhaMethod of Election of President Constitution of Canada Federation with a strong CentreVesting of residuary power in theCentre appointment of State Governor by CentreAdvisory jurisdiction of the supreme court Australian constitution …

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Indian Constitution Preamble

The Constituent Assembly debated the Preamble on 17th October 1949. The debates around the Preamble revolved around the name of India and inclusion of ‘God’ and ‘Gandhi’. The Assembly adopted the Preamble as presented by the Drafting Committee. Indian Constitution Preamble The Indian Constitution preamble is as follows: WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE, social, economic and political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation; IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO …

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Indian Constitution Preamble

Law Making

In ancient India, there were many overlapping local laws. Different communities enjoyed different degrees of autonomy in administering Law Making That is why, some scholars believe that it was the British colonialists who introduced the rule of law in India. However, some historians do not agree with this view. They refuse this claim on the following grounds: The British law was arbitrary. For example, the Sedition Act of 1870 laid down that any person protesting or criticising the British government could be arrested without appropriate trial. The Indian nationalists played an important role in the development of the legal sphere in British India. They began to protest and criticise the arbitrary law of the Britishers. By the end of the …

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Constitution, Law making

Constitution

A Constitution is a fundamental legal which the government of a country functions, These rules or laws are called the basic laws these laws are superior to all the laws of a country. That is, the laws written in the Constitution act as the source according to which rules and regulations of governing a country are framed. Every law enacted by the government has to be in conformity with the Constitution. But, the constitution constantly grows and evolves according to the needs, requirements and aspirations of the people and functioning institutions. Constitution A Constitution signifies Independence. It establishes the main organs of the government – the legislature, the executive and the Judiciary. A Constitution defines the powers and responsibilities of …

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Constitution, Law making

Secularism

Secularism refers to the belief that religion should not be involved in the organisation of a society. A secular state is one in which the State does not officially promote any particular religion as the State religion. India is a secular State. Here, all religions are treated with equal respect every citizen of India has the right to practise his/her own religion. All citizens are equal in the eyes of the law. Our country neither favour any particular religion, nor does it discriminate against any religion. The government cannot formulate such policy which discriminates between various religious communities that live in India. In short, secularism refers to the separation of religion from the State. Every religion has the freedom to …

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Secularism

Intellectual property rights (IPR)

Over the past two decades, intellectual property rights have grown to stature from where it plays in a major role in the development of the global economy. Intellectual property is everywhere the music you listen to the technology that makes your phone work. The design on your favourite card, the logo on your sneaker, it is it exist in all the things. You can see all are the product of women creativity and skills such as invention, book, painting, songs, symbols, name, image or design used in business, etc. All the invention of creation begin with an idea was the idea becomes an actual product, for example, Intellectual property one can apply to the authority concerned under the Government of …

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Intellectual property rights (IPR)

Power and functions of Constitutional Bodies

There are following bodies mentioned in the constitution of India in this article we will discuss the power and functions of these constitutional bodies. Constitutional Bodies Election commission Finance commission Union Public service commission State public service commission National commission for SC National commission for St Special officer for linguistic minorities Comptroller and auditor general Attorney general of India Advocate general of state Power and functions of of election commission with regards to the election of the parliament, state legislature, office of President and vice President. to prepare and periodically revised electoral rolls and to register all eligible voters. to prepare the dates and schedule of elections and to scrutinize nomination papers. To grant recognition to political parties and allot …

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Power and functions of Constitutional Bodies

Languages of India

There are many languages speaking in India, but 22 languages have the legal status. This is because India providing the Equality of Status to all the languages of India.There are 22 languages in the 8th schedule of the Indian Constitution. Originally, the Constitution has 14 languages in the 8th schedule. Eighth schedule is related to the article 344(1) and Article 351. Languages of India Eighth Schedule 1. Assamese.2. Bengali.3. Bodo.4. Dogri.5. Gujarati.6. Hindi.7. Kannada.8. Kashmiri.9. Konkani.10. Maithili.11. Malayalam.12. Manipuri.13. Marathi.14. Nepali.15. Odia16. Punjabi.17. Sanskrit.18. Santhali.19. Sindhi.20. Tamil.21. Telugu.22. Urdu There were three amendment in the schedule 8 of indian constitution. Sindhi was added in 1967 by 21st amendment. Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali were added by 71st Constitutional Amendment 1992 Bodo, …

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Languages of India

Indian Polity Section-II (Part I to Part IVA)

Indian Polity Section-II covers the articles of Indian Constitution from Part I to Part IVA. As we know, the Indian Constitution has XXII parts, 395 articles, 12 Schedules. In this article, we cover from Part I to Part IVA of the Indian Constitution. Which tell us how Naming of territory A list of state and union territory defined The naming of states, changing area of states, the formation of new state and power of parliament regarding this. People as Indian How to be an Indian People have some rights. States having a list of duties. People have some duties. Means Indian Territory having States, every state having some duties and the people of any state tagged as Indian and every …

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Indian Polity Section-II (Part I to Part IVA)

Indian Constitution Making

Indian Constitution Making process is given in the post. Who is behind the establishment of the Indian Constitution is given in the constitution. Indian Constitution History In 1600, the British came to India as traders, named as East India Company. which had the exclusive right of trading in India under a charter granted by Queen Elizabeth I. In 1765, Company till now had purely trading functions obtained the Diwani of Bengal Bihar and Orissa.  till 1858, the East India company made many rule for the direction of the company. in 1858, the British government ends all the powers of the company. by the wake of “Sepoy Mutiny,” the British Crown assumed direct responsibility for the Governance of India. Company Rule (1773-1858) …

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Indian Constitution Making