Sociology

Population

Can you imagine a world without human beings? Who would have utilized resources and created the social and cultural environment? The people are important to develop the economy and society. The people make and use resources and are themselves resources with varying quality. Coal is but a piece of rock until people were able to invent technology to obtain it and make it a ‘resource’. Natural events like a river flood or Tsunami become a ‘disaster’ only when they affect a crowded village or a town. Hence, the population is the pivotal element in social studies. It is the point of reference from which all other elements are observed and from which they derive significance and meaning.  ‘Resources’, ‘calamities’ and ‘disasters’ are …

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Population

Roles of Aganwadi workers

Under the ICDS Scheme, Aganwadi services were launched in 1975 as a pilot project covering 33 blocks in the country. To improve nutritional and health status of children in the age group 0 to 6 years. To lay the foundation for proper psychological physical and social development of the child To reduce the incidence of mortality morbidity and nutrition and school dropouts To achieve effective coordination of policies and implementation strategies among the various departments for promoting child development. To enhance capability of the mothers to look after the normal health and nutritional needs of their children through proper nutrition and health education. Intersectoral convergence is inbuilt and integral to the Anganwadi services. The target group for the services are …

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Roles and responsibilities of ASHA Workers

Recently as a routine and recurring incentives ASHAs get at least rupees 2000 per month along with the benefits of PM Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana and PM Suraksha Bima Yojana. Every village in the country is to have and asha worker and a trained female community health activist, selected from the village itself and accountable to its useful for whom civil work as an interface between the community and the public health system. An ASHA is primarily a literate women resident of the village preferably 10th standard pass who is Susan through a rigorous selection process involving various community group, self help group, anganbadi institution and district, nodal officer, village health committee and gram sabha. Her capacity building process is …

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Impact of the Right to Education

The right to education (RTE) act had been one of the country’s most defining moments. Like all momentous decisions, the decision to bring about this legislation was also the culmination of deep thought and earnest attempt over a number of decades, to user in universal education. We have come a long way from 1910 when Gopal Krishna Gokhale demanded free and compulsory primary education in India to 2002. When the article 21a was inserted in the constitution of India which declared that the state shall provide free and compulsory education to all the children of age 6 to 14 years in such manner as the state may by law determine. Just like human being nations too, have their own chequered …

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Poverty Alleviation Measures

Poverty Alleviation Measures: Poverty alleviation has to go hand in hand with a vigorous drive for reforms. A former member of the planning commission suggested the following measures for economic reforms in India. Distribution of income not only income has to be increased by stimulating policies of economic growth by the government but the distribution of income has also to be given importance in the country. The response must have a positive impact on the poor. Encouraging private investment of capital in private industries has lagged behind in our country. It can come if there is a belief that profitability will increase over a period of time, adopting liberalization can assume such beliefs. Raising resources and planning expenditure: Till private …

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Poverty Alleviation Measures

Indira Awas Yojana

Indira Awas Yojana scheme was primary launched to provide grant for the construction of houses to the members of SCs and STs. It is for freed bonded labourers and to non SC/ST rural poor who live below poverty line. Through it was launched by the central government during 1985-86, under the rural landless employment guarantee programme. It became a sub-scheme under Jawahar rojgar Yojana and scenes 1 January 1996 it has become an independent scheme. Indira Awas Yojana The target group covered under Indira Awas Yojana has now been extended to ex-servicemen, widows, next-of-kin of defence personnel and paramilitary forces killed in action, irrespective of the income criteria, subject to the condition that day new rural areas, so far have …

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Indira Awas Yojana, विश्वविद्यालय के कार्य

Integrated Rural Development Programme

Integrated rural development programme can be viewed in different ways with special emphasis on its objectives, content, process, structure, outcome and effect. The Programme had been thought about because according to the sixth five year plan. The project are sectoral approach was not adequate for overall development of the area. It was, therefore, necessary “to plan for integration of various programs and to establish appropriate linkages for optimal utilisation of local endowments, consistent with the plan objectives, local needs and environment balance.” At the planning stage itself the integration was thought of as a clubbing together of various programs for total development. The need for total development was not at all of a sudden because it had a long history …

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Integrated Rural Development Programme, अल्पसंख्यक कल्याण कार्यक्रम

Anti Poverty Programmes

To alleviate the poverty in India, Many Anti Poverty Programmes launched by the government. These three distinct strategies for reducing poverty in India may be identified as: Initially, in the 1950s the policy makers stressed maximization of economic growth by stepping up investment assuming that the benefits arising out of it would trickle down and diffuse among all sectors of the society. But in 1970s, it was realised that the benefits of agricultural growth did not percolate to the rural poor. This gave birth to the second approach let by the structural School which pleaded for the establishment of egalitarian society and suggested distribution of assets through land reforms, community development programmes, cooperative farming, and nationalisation of wing industries. But …

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Anti Poverty Programmes

Poverty Pains and Problems of Poor

Poverty Pains and Problems of Poor: After 65 years of planning, India is still one of the poorest countries in the world. Other countries, much smaller than India, have surged forward. Of the world’s poor every third person is an Indian and the number is on the increase. Some of the variables on which the poor differ from others are degree of participation in the labour force, kind of employment, characteristics of family, degree of knowledge of the larger society, political awareness, awareness of social and economic rights and values orientation in politics, religion and social customs. Poverty Pains and Problems of Poor The important problems of poor in our society are: Social discrimination and social condemnation Housing Subculture of …

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Poverty Pains and Problems of Poor

Rural Poverty

Rural Poverty: The number of poor people in India according to countries 11th National development plan, amounts to more than 300 million. The country has been successful in reducing the proportion of poor people from about 55% in 1973 to about 27% in 2004. Almost one-third of the country’s population of more than 11 billion continues, to live below the poverty line and a large proportion of poor people live in rural areas. Poverty remains a chronic condition for almost 30% of India’s rural population. The incidence of rural poverty has been declined somewhat over the past three decades as a result of rural to urban migration. Poverty is deepest among members of SCs/STs in the country’s rural areas. In …

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निर्धनता का सामाजिक प्रभाव

Causes of Poverty in India

There are two extreme perspectives on the basis of which we can analyse the causes of poverty in India. The old and the Modern One view of poverty is that it is providential and it is the result of an individual’s past karmas or sins. The other view ascribes poverty to be the result of a failure of an individual’s working abilities or due to his/her lack of motivation. One modern view links poverty with factors which are behind and individual’s control, Dadar describes the functioning of social systems in the society as the cause of poverty. Causes of Poverty in India The causes of poverty in India may be described as under: Rapidly rising population Low productivity in agriculture …

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Poverty in India, निर्धनता का सामाजिक प्रभाव

Poverty

Poverty is a situation that gives rise to a feeling of a this discrepancy between what one has and what one should have. What one should have is an internal construct. Hence, each person’s feeling and experience of power it is individual and unique. But, the feeling of powerlessness and resourcelessness possessed by all poor people. Henry Bernstein identify the following dimensions of poverty: Lack of livelihood strategies Inaccessability to resources Feeling of insecurity and frustration Inability to maintain and develop social relations with others as a consequence of lack of resources Poverty Three percepts are often used to define it: The amount of money required by a person to subsist the life below minimum subsistence level and living standard …

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Poverty in India, घीसू का चरित्र चित्रण

Social problems and Social change in India

Society is often face problems because of social and cultural changes. Social changes is change in the patterned roles, or a change in the network of social relations, or a change in the structures and organisations of a society. Social change is never complete or total. It is always partial. It can be minor or fundamental. Further, the change can be spontaneous or planned. Planned change is to achieve some set collective ideal. After independence, India also had set some collective goals to achieve. Social change in India Some of the important Social change in India that we find in our society in the last six decades are: Change from tradition to modernity in certain values and institutions From ascribed …

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Caste system and Social Reform, दलित समस्या समाधान, घरेलू हिंसा

Measurements of Poverty

First, researchers have disputed whether poverty should be measured in ‘absolute‘ or ‘relative’ term. Sane writers have argued that there is a common minimum standard that can be applied to all societies below which individuals can be said to be in poverty. Measures of absolute poverty are usually based upon the idea of substance. In other words, people are in poverty if they do not have the resources to maintain human life. Supporters of the concept of relative poverty, however, tend to dismiss this view. They argue that a definition must relate to the standards of a particular society at a particular time. According to this view, the point at which the dividing line separates the poor from other members …

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Poverty Alleviation Measures

Types of Social Problems

Social problems encountered in a society are usually diverse in nature. The factors responsible can be categorised as follows: Economic, usually in form of poverty, unemployment etc. Cultural, usually in form of divorce, juvenile delinquency etc Biological, usually in the form of infectious deseases, food poisoning etc. Phychological, usually in the form of neurological disease etc. Types of Social Problems On the basis of origin, Social Problems are of four types: Which are rooted in some aspect of the physical environment. Which are inherent in the nature or distribution of the population involved. Which result from poor social organisation. Which involves from a conflict of cultural values within the society. According to Fuller and Myers, there are three types of …

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Types of Social Problems

Poverty in India

Poverty in India: India represent a dichotomy in development. According to UNIDO’s yearbook of statistics 2010, India has emerged as one of the world’s top 10 countries in industrial production. It ranks ninth in world industrial production and 10th in gross National production. Yet it has a large population that is extremely poor. The United Nations human development index is based on three indicators: Life expectancy Access to education Income levels This ranks India 136th among 186 countries. Although independence, the country has registered a significant overall growth rate and there has been a progressive increase in the per capita income. According to Ansari and Akhtar, at the beginning of the new millennium, 260 million pop Lene India did not …

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Poverty in India

Sociology Sociologist and Social problems

Before we analyse the relationship between sociology and social problems, we need to answer a question: why we study social problems in sociology it is not because most people consider them ‘bad’ and these need to eliminated. In fact, Sociology is a social science like natural sciences, attempts to approach its subject matter objectively. If we approach the study of social problems assuming that they are bad, we are not being objective and will not achieve a sociological understanding. Relationship between Sociology and Social Problems The three issues which need analysis with regard to the relationship between sociology and social problems are: How does sociology pursue social problems What sociological principles does sociology offer about the social problems To what …

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Sociology Sociologist and Social problems

Solving Social Problems

Solving Social Problems: A perusal of social problems that affect mankind today indicates that it is not the nature of these problems, but the level of their operation that causes them. Solving Social Problems depend upon finding out the causes of troublesome social conditions which create the problem. As already stated, prove every social problem is caused by multiple factors, but it is always possible to find out the chief factor, the cooperative factors and the minor events in the origin and development of the problem. Video problem is likely to be unique and is likely to have individual stick traits which may differentiate it from other problems. Social Problems Many a time, the nature of the social problem is …

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Social Problems Approaches

Stages in the development of Social Problem

Stages in the development of Social Problem is defined by many sociologist. We will study some models of famous ideas that defines this. Stages in the development of Social Problem We will study the ideas of following famous sociologist in this field. Fuller and Myres Blumer Spector and Kitsuse According to Fuller and Myers- Fuller and Myres have referred to three states through which a problem passes in the process of being defined and solved: Awareness: In this first stage, people become convinced that the problem exists, the condition is undesirable, and that something can be done about it. In the beginning, only a few people raise questions but gradually more people become aware of the existence of the problem. …

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Social Problems Approaches

Social Problems Approaches

Social Problems Approaches: Social problems have been analysed scientifically. Below we examine some of the theoretical approaches which present universal explanations for all type of social problems. Social Problems Approaches There are many types of social approaches that can be used to define the social problem. Social Disorganisation Approach Cultural Lag Approach Value Conflict Approach Personal Deviation Approach Social Disorganisation Approach Social Disorganisation is a condition of a society, community or group in which there is a breakdown of social control, or of a social order, or of formal and informal norms that define permissible behaviour. It is characterized by the lack of co-operation, common values, unity, discipline and predictability. Warren has described it as a condition involving Lack of …

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Social Problems Approaches

Causes of Social Problems

Causes of Social Problems: Social problems arise about pathological social conditions. They occur in all societies simple as well as complex. What it means is that where is your and when we were a relationship is affected between a group of individuals, it leads to maladjustments and conflicts. Social Problems A social problem is a condition affecting a significant number of people in ways considered undesirable about which it is felt that something can be done through collective social action. Causes of Social Problems Three factors are important in the understanding of the casual factors in social problems: The casual conditions are numerous. Broadly, the potential causes of social problems found in social environment are Contradictions in social systems Malfunctioning …

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Social Problems Approaches

Characteristics of Social Problems

Characteristics of Social Problems: On the basis of concept of social problems, we can identify the following characteristics of social problem: All social problems our situation which have injurious consequences for society. All social problems are deviations from the ideal situation. All social problems have some common basis of origin. All social problems are social in origin. All social problems are caused by pathological social conditions. All social problems are interconnected. All social problems are are social in their results, that is, they affect all sections of society. The responsibility for social problems is social, that is they require a collective approach for their solution. Characteristics of Social Problems Weinberg gives six characteristics of Social problems as under: Social problems …

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Characteristics of Social Problems

Reactions to Social Problems

Reactions to Social Problems: Different people react differently to social problems. the differences may be explained in terms of the following four factors: An attitude of unconcern: Many pupil remain indifferent to a problem thinking that it does not affect them. Sometimes their own individual problems like family tensions and job pressures keep them so engaged that do not find time to be interested in what affects other. it is only when their own interests are involved that they become educated and start taking interest in the problem. Fatalism: some people are so fatalistic attribute everything to destiny. issues like poverty and unemployment are explained in term of misfortune and past Karma. They, therefore, suffer the misfortune quietly and wait …

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Social change in India

Social Problems

Today, ‘Social Problems‘ is considered a sub-discipline of sociology. Sociology is a very vast field, encompassing such sub-disciplines as the sociology of family, sociology of crime and delinquency, sociology of education, sociology of environment etc Drug abuse, alcoholism, ageing, population explosion corruption age inequality child abuse terrorism population power environmental degradation unemployment and crime against women are not individual problems but affect the society at large. And individual problem is one which affect one individual or one group. Against this, A Social issue is one which affect the society as a whole or the larger part of society. the sociologist job is to understand the complexity of these problems and their related to social structure to study the operation of …

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