This chapter tells us that the concept of human development as it pertains to nations and communities.
Growth and development
Both refers to change over a period. And development occurs +ve growth means positive change in quality.
The concept of human development is introduced by Dr. Mahbub-ul-haq. Dr. Haq described it as
Development that enlarge people choices and improve their lives. These choices are not fixed but keep on changing. The basic goal of development is to create conditions where people can live meaningful lives.
Here the meaningful life means a life with some purpose. This means that people must be healthy , be able to develop their talents , participate in society and free to achieve their goals.
Four pillars of human development
The idea of human development is supported by the following four pillars:
Equity- it makes equal access toopportunityavailable to everybody.the opportunities available to prople must be equal irrespective of their gender, race ,income and caste.
Sustainability- it means the continuity in availability of opportunity. To have sustainable development each generation must have the same opportunity.
So, all environmental, financial and human resources must be used keeping in mind the future.
Productivity- it means to the human labour or human work. Such productivity must be constantly enriched by building capability in people.
Empowerment-it means to have the power to make choices such power comes from increasing freedom and capability.
Good governance and people oriented policies are required to empower people.
Comparison of human development
For comparison of human development by country. Size of territory , per capita income are not directly related to human development.
There is a scale called HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX. That is
Countries can be classified into three groups
Srilanka , Tobago, trinidad are smaller countries but having more score than india .
Similarly in India kerala perform much better than the gujarat and punjab in human resource development.
Top 10 countries
Approaches to human development
These are the ways by which we looking the problem of human development.
To increasing the capability of human in the area of health, education and the access to resources.