Physical geography of India and World
Economic and Human Geography of India and World
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Human Development

This chapter tells us that the concept of human development as it pertains to nations and communities.

Growth and development

  • Difference and similarity
  1. Growth is quantitative and value neutral while development is qualitative and always positive value.
  2. In growth , Change may be either positive or negative while in development , change is always positive.

Both refers to change over a period. And development occurs +ve growth means positive change in quality.

The concept of human development is introduced by Dr. Mahbub-ul-haq. Dr. Haq described it as

Development that enlarge people choices and improve their lives. These choices are not fixed but keep on changing. The basic goal of development is to create conditions where people can live meaningful lives.

Here the meaningful life means a life with some purpose. This means that people must be healthy , be able to develop their talents , participate in society and free to achieve their goals.

Four pillars of human development

The idea of human development is supported by the following four pillars:

  1. Equity
  2. Sustainability
  3. Productivity
  4. Empowerment

Equity- it makes equal access toopportunityavailable to everybody.the opportunities available to prople must be equal irrespective of their gender, race ,income and caste.

Sustainability- it means the continuity in availability of opportunity. To have sustainable development each generation must have the same opportunity.

So, all environmental, financial and human resources must be used keeping in mind the future.

Productivity- it means to the human labour or human work. Such productivity must be constantly enriched by building capability in people.

Empowerment-it means to have the power to make choices such power comes from increasing freedom and capability.

Good governance and people oriented policies are required to empower people.

Comparison of human development

For comparison of human development by country. Size of territory , per capita income are not directly related to human development.

There is a scale called HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX. That is

  • Ranking is based on three keys :
  • areas of health, education and access to resources .
  • These three have equal weightage.(0.33+0.33+0.33)
  • Access to resource is measured in terms of puchasing power.
  • The adult literacy rate and the gross enrollment ratio represent access to knowledge.
  • The indicator chosen to access health is measured by the people having a greater chance of living longer and healtheir lives.

Countries can be classified into three groups

Srilanka , Tobago, trinidad are smaller countries but having more score than india .

Similarly in India kerala perform much better than the gujarat and punjab in human resource development.

Top 10 countries

  • India having 0.624 , report published on 21 march.
  • Since 1990, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has been publishing the Human Development Report every year. This report provides a rank-wise list of all member countries according to the level of human development. The Human Development index and the Human Poverty index are two important indices to measure human development used by the UNDP.

Approaches to human development

  • (a) The income approach;
  • (b) The welfare approach;
  • (c) Minimum needs approach;
  • (d) Capabilities approach

These are the ways by which we looking the problem of human development.

  • Higher the level of income higher the level of human development.
  • Government is working for welfare of weaker section by higher expendature on them
  • The INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION proposed six basic needs
  1. Health
  2. Education
  3. Food
  4. Water supply
  5. Sanitation
  6. Houshing

To increasing the capability of human in the area of health, education and the access to resources.