Physical geography of India and World
Economic and Human Geography of India and World
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Transport and Communication

Transport and Communication
  • Natural resources, economic activities and markets are rarely found in one place.
  • It establishes the relation between producing centre and consuming centre.
  • Each region produces the item for which it is best suited.
  • Trade or exchange of such commodities relies on it.
  • The high living standards and quality of life depend on efficient transportation , communication and trade.

TRANSPORTATION

  • It is a service or facility for the carriage of persons and goods from one place to the other using humans animals and different kind of vechiles.
  • Such movement take place over land , water and air.
  • Pipelines carry materials like petrolium natural gas and ores in liquified form.
  • So, Transportation is an organised service industry created to satisfy the basic needs of society.
  • It includes transport arteries vechile to carry people and goods and the other organisation to maintain arteries and to handle loading unloading and delivery.

Transport network formed by the several places joined by a series of routes to form a pattern.

Modes of transportation

  • Land
  • Water
  • Air
  • Pipelines

These are used for inter regional and intra regional transport and each one carries both passenger and freight.

The significance of mode depends on type of goods and services to be transported, cost of transport and modes available.

International movement of goods is handled by ocean freighters.

Road transport is cheaper and faster over short distances and for door to door services.

Railways are most suited for large volume of bulky materials over long distance with in the country.

High value light and perishable goods are best moved by airways.

Land transport

  • The revolution in the transport came about only after the invention of the steam engine in the eighteenth century.
  • The first public railway line was opened in 1825 between stockton and darlington in northern england.
  • In 19th century railway become the most popular form of transport .
  • It opened up continental interiors for commercial gain farming , mining and manufacturing in USA
  • among the newer developments in land transportations are pipelines , ropeways and cableways.
  • In the densily populated district of india and china overland transport still takes place by human porters or carts drawn or pushed by humans.

Roads

  • Road transport is the most economical for short distances compared to railways.
  • Frieght transport by road is gaining importance because it offers door to door services.
  • The rail kilometrage being small can not serve the needs of vast and developing countries at a low cost
  • Roads, therefore play a vital role in nation’s trade and commerce and for promoting tourism.
  • The quality of roads varies greatly between developed and developing countries because road construction and maintenance require heavy expenditure.

Data

The world total motorable road length is about 15 million km

of which north america accounts for 33 % .

And the highest road density and highest number of vechile are registered in this continent compared to eastern Europe.

Traffic flow

  • Traffic on roads increases dramatically in recent years. When the road networks can not cope with the demands of traffic , Congestion occurs.
  • Peaks and troughts of traffic flow can be seen on roads at particular times of the day.

Most of the cities in the world have been facing the problem of Congestion.

Highways

  • Highways are the mettled roads connected different places.
  • They are constructed in a manner for unobstructed vechile movement.

In developed countries every city and port town linked trough highway.

IN NORTH AMERICA,

  • The higway density is high
  • Every place is within 20 km distance from highway .
  • Cities located on the pacific coast well connected with atlantic coast.
  • The cities of canada in the north are linked with those of maxico in the south.

THE PAN AMERICAN HIGHWAY ,

  • A large portion of which has been constructed , will connect the countries of south america, Central America and USA -Canada

IN EUROPE,

  • It has a large number of vechile and a well developed highway network. But highway face a lot of competition from railway

IN RUSSIA ,

  • Due to the vast geographical area , highways in Russia are not important than railways.

IN CHINA ,

  • Highways criss cross the country connecting all major cities such as Tsungtso, shanghai (central china), Guangzhou (south) and beizing (north).

IN INDIA ,

  • There are many highways linking the major towns and cities.

Example is NH7 connecting Varanasi to Kanyakumari. And A golden quadrilateral connect the four metropolition cities. New delhi , mumbai banglore chennai kolkata hyderabad.

IN AFRICA,

  • A highway joins Algeria in the north to Conakry in Guinea. Similarly Cairo connected with Cape Town.

Note – locate all these in atlas.

Railway

  • Railway are a mode of land transport for bulky goods and passengers over long distances
  • Commuter trains are very popular in the country UK USA JAPAN and INDIA.

EUROPE,

  • It has one of the most dense railway network in the world.
  • Underground railway are important in London and Paris.
  • Channel tunnel operated by Euro tunnel group through England connect LONDON WITH PARIS.

IN RUSSIA,

  • Railways account for about 90 % of the countries total transport with a very dense network west of the Urals.
  • Underground railways and commuters train are also important in Moscow.

In NORTH AMERICA,

  • It has most expensive rail network nearly 40 % of world total.

In CANADA,

  • railways are in the public sector and distributed all over the sparsely populated areas.

IN AUSTRALIA,

  • It has 40000 km railway of which 25 %are found in New south wales alone .
  • The west east Australian National Railway lines runs accross the country from perth to Sydney.

IN SOUTH AMERICA,

  • The rail networkis most dense in two regions , namely the pampas of argentina and the coffee growing region of Brazil with together around for 40 % of south america’s total route length.

IN ASIA,

  • Rail network is the most dense in the thickly populated areas of japan , China and India.
  • Other countries have relatively few railway routes.

AFRICA ,

  • Despite being the second largest , has only 40000 km of railways with south africa alone accounting for 18000 km due to concentration of gold copper diamond.

The important routes of the continent are :

  1. The benguela railway through angola to Katanga Zambia copper belt
  2. The tanzania railway from the Zambian copper belt to dar-es-salaam on the coast.
  3. The bue train from Capetown to pretoria in the republic of south africa.

Trans- Continental Railways

  1. Trans Continental Railways runs across the continent and link its two ends.
  2. They were constructed for economic and political reasons.

The following are the most important of these:

Trans-Siberian Railway

Trans-Canadian Railway

The union and pacific railway

The Australian Trans-Continental Railway

The orient express

Note – locate all above trans Continental Railways in atlas.

Water Transport

  • One of the great advantages of water transportation is that it does not require route construction.
  • Water transport is devided in to sea routes and inland waterways.

Sea routes

  • Ocean transport is a cheaper means of haulage (carrying of load ) of bulky material over long distance from one continent to another .
  • Modern passenger ships and cargo ships are equipped with radar wireless and other navigation aids.
  • The use of container has made cargo handling at the worlds’s major ports easier.

Important sea routes

  1. THE NORTH ALTANTIC SEA ROUTES.
  2. THE MEDITERRANEAN- INDIAN OCEAN SEA ROUTES
  3. THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE SEA ROUTE
  4. THE NORTH PACIFIC SEA ROUTES
  5. THE SOUTH PACIFIC SEA ROUTES
  6. COASTAL SHIPING
  7. SHIPING CANALS
  8. THE SUEZ CANAL.
  9. THE PANAMA CANAL

Note – locate all sea routes in atlas.

Inland waterways

  • Rivers canals lakes and coastal areas have been important waterways since time immemorial.
  • Boats and steamers are used as means of transport for cargo and passengers.
  • The development of inland waterways dependent on the NAVIGABILITY width and depth of channel, continuity in the waterflow, transport technology in use.
  • In ancient time, river ways were the main highways of transportation as in the case of india. But they lost importance because of competition from Railways , lack of water due to diversion for irrigation and their poor maintenance.

there are many rivers as inland waterways for domestic and international transport and trade has been recognised throughout the developed world.

Some are discussing here

THE RHINE WATERWAYS

THE DANUBE WATERWAYS

THE VOLGA WATERWAYS

THE GREAT LAKES – ST. LAWRENCE SEAWAY

THE MISSISSIPPI WATERWAYS

Note – locate all sea these in atlas.

Air transport

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