In the present contest
- computerisation ,
- industrialisation ,
- efficient transport and communication ,
- large education system ,
- advanced and modern medical facilities ,
- safety and security of indivisuals
are considered as the symbol of development.
- The most systematic efforts towards this was the publication of the first human development report by UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT REPORT PROGRAMME in 1990.
- So, UNDP bringing out the HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT every year.
We studies about all the concept indicators and the approaches to human development and methods of calculating in the book ‘Fundamental of human geography’.
Now here the target of the chapter is
“Application of those concepts and indicators to india.”
Human development in India-
- India having 134 rank among 147 countries of the world with HDI=0.547
- India group in the countries having medium human development.
Low scores in HDI is matter of serious concern.
Using the indicators selected by the UNDP ,
- NITI ayog also prepared the human development report for India.
- It used states and the union territories as the units of analysis.
- State government prepared the human development report for his state by taking districts as the unit of analysis.
All measurements based on the three indicators as
- Areas of health , education and access to resources.
Yet this report also discussed other indicators like
- Economic attainment
- Social empowerment
- Social distributive justice
Various welfare measures undertaken by the state.
Now we will discuss the indicators
Indicators of Economic attainments
- Gross national product and its per capita availability are taken as measures to access the resources base / endowment of any country.
For India, it is estimated that its GDP was ₹3,200 thousand crore at current price and accordingly per capita income was ₹20,813 at current price.
- There are few developed states like Maharashtra , Punjab , Haryana , Gujarat and Delhi that have per capita income more that ₹4000 per year.
- Also there are large number of poorer states like Uttar pradesh , Bihar , Odisha , Madhya Pradesh , Assam , Jammu and Kashmir which have recorded pci less than ₹2000 per year
- It was estimated that more than ₹690 per capita per month in states like Punjab , Haryana , Kerala , Maharashtra and Gujarat
- Below ₹520 per capita per month in states like Uttar pradesh , Bihar , Odisha and Madhya Pradesh.
These variation indicate the some other deepseated economic problems like poverty , unemployment and under employment.
Also the list of poverty line indicate how people in India is below poverty line as
Indicators of a healthy life
- LIfe free from illness and ailment and living a reasonably long life span are indicative of a healthy life.
- India has done reasonably well in some of the health indicators like
decline in death rate
- from 25.1 per thousand in 1951
- to 8.1 per thousand in 1999.
- From 148 per thousand in 1951
- To 70 per thousand in 1999.
Increasing life expectancy
- At birth from 37.1 years to 62.3 years for males
- 36.5 to 65.3 years for females from 1951 to 1999.
So, we can say a great achievement but a lots of needs to be done.
- Also during this period birth rate is bringing down from 40.8 to 26.1. but it is the much higher for developed countries.
- Also it is noticed that india is declining female sex ratio . Which is finded by the child between 0-6 years represent by the census of india.
Indicators of social empowerment
Development is freedom.Freedom from
Literacy is the beginning of access to such a world of knowledge and freedom.
Human Development Index in India
It is calculated by india the development of human particularly by state.
Population Environment and Development
- the UNDP in its Human Development Report 1993, tried to amend some of the implicit biases and prejudices which were entrenched in the concept of development.
- People’s participation and their security were the major issues in the Human Development Report of 1993.
- the views expressed by the Neo-Malthusians, environmentalists and radical ecologists.
- They believe that for a happy and peaceful social life proper balance between population and resources is a necessary condition.
- According to these thinkers, the gap between the resources and population has widened after eighteenth century.
- Development has only contributed in increasing the multiple uses of the limited resources of the world while there has been enormous increase in the demand for these resources.
Therefore, the prime task before any development activity is to maintain parity between population and resources.
- Sir Robert Malthus was the first one to voice his concern about the growing scarcity of resources as compared to the human population.
- Resources everywhere are unevenly distributed.
views were also re-echoed in the Club of Rome Report “Limits to Growth” (1972),
Schumacher’s book “Small is Beautiful” (1974),
Brundtland Commission’s Report “Our Common Future” (1987)
finally in the “Agenda-21 Report of the Rio Conference” (1993).