Indian Modern History
Indian Modern History
The Mughal Emperor Jahangir given permission to the British East India Company in 1617.
As a result of three Carnatic Wars the British East India company and exclusive control over entire Carnatic region of India.
The border dispute between Nepal and British India which happened after 1801. Had caused the Anglo Nepal war of 1814-16
Their Policy was sometimes summed up as
divide and rule
taking advantage of the inmate fostering between various princely states and social and religious groups.
Indian Modern History Governors
- Robert Clive (1757-1760)
- Henry Vansittart (1760-1764)
- Robert Clive (1765-1766)
- Harry Vere 1st (1767-1769)
- John Cartier (1769-1772)
- Warren Hasting (1772-1774)
- Charles Cornwallis (1786-1793)
- Richard Wellesley (1798-1805)
- Charles Cornwallis (1805-1848)
- James Brown-Ramsay (1848-1854)
Events and consequences before 1857
|Name of Event||Event||Consequences|
|First Carnatic War(1746-1748)||British Admiral Edward Peyton and French La Bourdonnais fought at Negapatam||British Victory|
|Second Carnatic War(1749-1754)||Nasir Jung aided by France While England aided Muzaffar Jung||Ended with the Treaty of Pondicherry in 1754 and Muzaffar Jung became the Nizam|
|Third Carnatic War (1758 – 1763)||French Commander Count De lally and British general Sir Eyre Coote at Wandiwash(1760)||Defeat of French |
& the Treaty of Paris was signed. Which returned Chandra Nagar and Pondicherry to France.
|Battle of Plassey (23 June 1757)||French is supported Sirajuddaula and East India Company led by Robert Clive||British victory after this mastery of Bengal.|
and Britishers used the revenue of Bengal to maintain strong Army.
|Battle of Buxar (22 October 1764)||East India Company led by Hector Munro and Mughal emperor along with the Nawab of Bengal||Treaty of Allahabad secured Diwani rights|
|Pitt’s India act 1784||British government got control over the company’s affair and its administration.|
|War 1789-1792||Tipu Sultan and East India Company||Treaty of Seringapatam was signed.|
|Awadh annexation 1856||Lord Dalhousie|
Indian Modern History
The Revolt of 1857
- East India company and united force of Indian leaders (Bahadur Shah Bhagat Singh Begum Hazrat Mahal are powered Tatya Tope Nanasaheb Azimullah Rani Laxmi Bai Kunwar Singh.) By this revolt there was an end of companies rule now India came under the direct rule of British Crown.
- The Revolt of 1857 that occured in the Northern parts of India, was a result of the discontent and resentment of the people against British conquest and administration since hundred years. The revolt began on 29 March 1857, when a sepoy, Mangal Pandey attacked his officers at Barrackpore. He was hanged to death. On 9 May 1857, 85 sepoys of the 3rd Cavalry Regiment refused to use the greased cartridges and were sentenced to 10 years in jail. Indian Modern History
- On 10th May, a group of soldiers marched towards the Meerut Jail, shot the British officers and released their fellow sepoys from jail. They seized all the arms and ammunition from there, and set fire to the buildings and British properties. Thus, a formal war was declared against the British. The rebel sepoys then marched towards Delhi on the night of 10th may itself and reached there the next morning. On hearing the news of their arrival, the sepoys in Delhi also rose in rebėllion.
They also set the British buildings and properties on fire and captured their arms. They gathered round the Red Fort and declared Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar as their leader. Greatly inspired by the rebels, the Emperor asked all the rulers of India to join their hands together in their fight against the British. The local rulers and chiefs saw this as an opportunity to regain their support to the rebels. # The main centres and the leaders are :- As the news of the revolt spread , sepoy regiments of other places also joined in.
They were soon followed by zamindars , local chiefs , leaders and peasants.
- Delhi: Bakht Khan was the leader of the rebels.
- Kanpur : Nana Saheb , the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II led the rebels and expelled the British garrison from Kanpur , He declared himself as the Peshwa and Nana Saheb recognised Bahadur Shah as his king . The commander of his troops were Tantia Tope and Azimullah.
- Lucknow : Birjis Qadir was proclaimed as the new Nawab of Lucknow . He was the son of the deposed Nawab Wajid Ali Shah . Birjis too accepted Bahadur Shah as his Emperor, His mother Regum Hazrat Mahal led the rebels against the British. She was accompanied by Maulvi Ahmadullah.
- Jhansi Rani Lakshmi Bai: took up arms against the British. She was joined by Tantia Tope from Kanpur.
- Bihar : Kunwar Singh , the Raja of Jagdishpur led the rebels at Arahh in Bihar.
Indian Modern History
Social and Cultural reform
|Raja Ram Mohan Roy||established Atmiya Sabha. he was the first Indian to start an agitation for social, religious and political reforms.|
|Raja Ram Mohan Roy||Established Brahma Samaj to preach monotheism and purify Hinduism.|
|Debendranath Tagore||founded Tattvabodhini Sabha to propagate Ram Mohan Roy’s idea|
|Vidyasagar||protests against child marriage and promoted women education.|
|Vishnu Shankar Pandit||founded widow remarriage Association|
|Dadabhai naoroji||established East India Association in London|
|Mahatma Jyoti Rao Govind Rao Phule||Founded satyashodhak Samaj|
|Swami Dayanand Saraswati||Founded Arya Samaj in Bombay.|
|Vivekananda||founded the Ramkrishna Mission to carry out humanitarian relief and social work|
Freedom struggle Timeline
|28 December 1885||Indian National Congress was formed by Allan octavian Hume|
|28-31 December 1885||First session of Indian National Congress was attended by 72 delegates under the presidency of W.C. Bannerjee.|
|1896-97||B.G. Tilak initiated a no tax campaign in Maharashtra|
|20 July 1905||Partition of Bengal order was passed by Lord Curzon|
|December 1905||Gokhale the president of Congress condemned the partition of Bengal and supported Swadeshi and Boycott Movement.|
|1906||Dadabhai naoroji became the President of National Congress and declared their goal of self government or Swaraj|
|30 December 1906||All India Muslim League was formed by Aga Khan and the founding meeting was hosted by Nawab sir Khwaja|
|1909||Marley Minto Reform was announced|
|1911||Government announced the withdrawal of partition of Bengal|
|1913||Gadar Party founded by Punjabi Indians in the United States|
|April 1915||First session of Hindu Mahasabha|
|26 December 1916||Lucknow Pact was signed dealing with the structure of the Government of India and with relation to the Hindu and Muslim communities|
|1917||Satyagraha started by MK Gandhi in Champaran Bihar|
|1918||Montagu chelmsford reforms announced by Edwin montagu which is secretary of state and large clamps food which was Viceroy|
|1919||Enactment of the Government of India Act of 1919|
|March 1919||Rowlatt Act was passed which enable government to imprison people without trial.|
|13 April 1919||Jaliawala bagh crisis|
|31 August 1920||Khalifat committee launched a non cooperation movement|
|1 February 1922||MK Gandhi announced mass civil disobedience|
|5 February 1922||Chouri Chaura|
|1925||Communist party came into existence|
|November 1927||Simon headed Commission was set up to submit report on working of Indian constitution established by government of India Act 1919|
|17 November 1928||Lala Lajpat Rai died due to the injured by the beating of local police during a protest demonstration at Lahore|
|December 1928||Gandhi joined back the active politics at Calcutta session|
|26 January 1930||Was fixed as the first independence day and since then was celebrated every year up to 1947|
|February 1930||Chandrasekhar Ajad was shot dead in a park called Azad Park at Allahabad in an encounter with police|
|12 March 1930||Dandi March by MK Gandhi took place he worked 375 km from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi|
|6 April 1930||Gandhi reached Dandi and broke the salt law|
|12 November 1930||First Round table conference was held in London was shared by British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald|
|5 March 1931||Gandhi Irwin pact was signed between Gandhi and viceroy of India lord erwin|
|24 August 1932||Poona pact was signed between Gandhi and Doctor Ambedkar at Yerwada Central Jail|
|1935||Comment of India Act was passed according to which all the Indian Federation was established including British India and princely states|
|October 1940||Gandhi gave an order for a limited Satyagraha for few days|
|8 August 1942||Quit India Movement was launched by MK Gandhi|
|1945||Congress working committee adopted resolution to abolish landlordism|
|External affairs and commonwealth relations||Jawaharlal Nehru|
|Home (including Information and Broadcasting)||Vallabh Bhai Patel|
|Finance||Liaquat Ali Khan|
|Posts and air||Abdur Rab Nishtar|
|Food and agriculture||Rajendra Prasad|
|Industries and supplies||John Mathai|
|Transport and railways||M.Asaf Ali|
|Education and Arts||C. Rajgopalachari|
|Works, Mines and power||C. H. Babha|
|Commerce||I. I. Chundrigar|
|Law||Jogindar nath Mandel|
|Health||Ghazanfar Ali Khan|
Indian Modern History Newspaper and its Founder
|Bengal Gazette (1780) (India, s First Newspaper)||JK Hikki|
|Amrita Bazar Patrike||Sisir Kumar Ghosh|
|Vande Mataram||Aurobindo Ghosh|
|Kavivachan Sudha||Bhartendu Harishchandra|
|Rast Goftar(first newspaper in Gujarati)||Dadabhai Naoroji|
|Yugantar||Bhupendra Nath Data|
|Bombay Chronicle||Firoz Shah Mehta|
|Tahzib-ul-Akhlaq||Sir Syed Ahmed Khan|
|Al-Hilal-1914||Abdul Kalam Azad|
|Al-Balagh||Abul Kalam Azad|
|Panjabi||Lala Rajpat Rai|
|New India||Annie Besant|
|Young India- 1919||M.K. Gandhi|
|Hindustan Times||K.M. Pannikar|
Indian Modern History – Mountbatten plan
- The Independence Act 1947 also called 3 june plan or Mountbatten plan.
- It gave India and Pakistani Dominion status.
- The actor received the royal assent on 18 july 1947.
the boundaries between the two Dominion states were determined by a boundary commission which was headed by Sir Cyril Radcliffe.
Great Travellers in Indian history
A Buddhist monk who came from china during region of Chandra Gupta II
405-411 AD wrote the book “Record of Buddhist kingdoms”
Husuain tsang xuanzang
Chinese buddhist monk came during
reign of Chandragupta II
Duration 630-645 AD
wrote record of western world.
Indian Modern History
Traveller of Moracco
Came in India at the region of Mohammad Bin Tuglaq.
Write Rihla relating geographical Social and Economic Behaviour of this time.
Ambassador of James II, King of England
Came in India during the reign of Jahangir.
First visit: 1421