Indian Polity Section-II covers the articles of Indian Constitution from Part I to Part IVA. As we know, the Indian Constitution has XXII parts, 395 articles, 12 Schedules. In this article
Which tell us how
- Naming of territory
- A list of state and union territory defined
- The naming of states, changing area of states, the formation of new state and power of parliament regarding this.
- People as Indian
- How to be an Indian
- People have some rights.
- States having a list of duties.
Means Indian Territory having States, every state having some duties and the people of any state tagged as Indian and every Indian having some rights with a list of duties.
Let’s discuss a little detail.
The Union and its territory (Part I of Constitution)
Article 2 relates to the admission or establishment of new states that are not part of the Union of India.
Article 3 deals with the internal readjustment of the territory of the constituent states of the Union of India.
Name of the states and the union territories are mentioned in
|Part A||provinces of British India|
|Part B||princely states with legislature|
|Part C||centrally administered state|
|Part D||Andaman and Nicobar|
After that many commission established for the better division of the territory of the union.
List of state with Formation Year
|1.||Andhra Pradesh (1953)||1.||Andaman and Nicobar Island|
|3.||Bihar (1950)||3.||Dadra and Nagar Haveli|
|4.||Gujarat (1960)||4.||Daman and Diu|
|6.||Madhya Pradesh (1956)||6.||Lakshadweep|
|7.||Tamil Nadu (1950)||7.||Puducherry|
|13.||Utter Pradesh (1950)|
|14.||West Bengal (1950)|
|15.||Jammu and Kashmir (1950)|
|24.||Arunachal Pradesh (1987)|
Article 4 states that laws made under article two and three to provide for the amendment of the first and the fourth schedule and supplemental incidental and consequential matters.
Citizenship (Part II of Constitution)
Article 5: Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution
When Constitution was adopted for that time article 5
- Who was born in India or his parent born in
- Who has been
ordinaryresident in the territory of India for not less than 5 years.
Article 6: Rights of citizenship of
a person who migrated to India from Pakistan became an Indian citizen if he or his Idea office parents are any of his grandparents was born in undivided India.
Article 7: Rights of citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan
a person who migrated to Pakistan from India after 1 March 1947, but later returned to India for resettlement could become an Indian citizen for this he had to be residence in India for 6 month preceding the date of his application for registration.
Article 8: Rights of citizenship of certain persons of Indian Origin residing outside India
A person who is ordinary residing outside India and whose parent or grandparents are born in undivided India to become an Indian citizen if he had been registered as a citizen of India.
this article covers “the overseas Indian who may want to acquire Indian citizenship.”
Article 9: Person voluntary acquiring citizenship of a foreign state not to be a citizen
no person shall be a citizen of India by virtue of article 5 and 6 and 8 if he has voluntary acquire citizenship of a foreigner state.
Article 10: Continuance of rights of citizenship
person who is or is Deemed to be a citizen of India shall continue to be such citizen subject to the provisions of any law made by parliament.
Article 11: Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by Law
when shall have the power to make any provisions with respect to the acquisition and termination of citizenship and all other matter relating to citizenship.
Single Citizenship in India and Japan.
Dual citizenship in UK, USA, Russia, France.
Single Citizenship is beneficial or dual?
Rights denied to the alien but only for
Fundamental rights under article 15,16,19,29,30.
provideto the people of India to promote the feeling of fraternity and Unity among them and to build and integratedIndian nation.
Fundamental Rights (Part III of Constitution)
Originally the constitution provides for seven fundamental
1.Right to Equality (Article 14-18)
2.Right to freedom (Article 19-22)
3.Right against exploitation (Article 23-24)
4.Right to freedom of religion (Article 25-28)
5.Cultural and educational rights (Article 29-30)
6.Right to property (Article 31)
7.Right to constitutional remedies (Article 32)
Article 31 right to property was deleted from the list of the fundamental rights by the 44th Amendment Act of 1978.
So, there are mainly 6 Fundamental Rights.
besides the part III, there are certain other rights contained in other parts of constitution are called legal rights.
Directive Principle of State Policy (Part IV of Constitution)
Directive Principles of State Policy borrowed from the Irish constitution which has copied from the Spanish constitution.
“Noble features of Indian Constitution” – Dr BR Ambedkar
Fundamental rights + directive principle of state policy called the philosophy of the constitution,
soul of the Constitution,
concise of the constitution.
Features of directive principle of State Policy
- The ideas that the state should keep in mind while formulating policies and
- it resembles the instrument of instructions enumerated in the Government of India Act 1935.
- It constitutive very comprehensive economic social and political program for a modern democratic state.
- These are non-justiciable in nature and the government cannot be compared to implement them.
- in this regards article 37 says that which principle and fundamental in the governments of the country and it shall be the duty of the state to apply the principal in making laws.
helpsto the court in examining and determining the constitutional validity of a law.
Socialist (38 39 39A 41 42 43 43A 47)
Gandhian (40 43 43B 46 48 47)
Liberal (44 45 48 48 49 50 51)
Amendment in Directive Principle of State
Article 38 (44th amendment)
Article 39 (42th amendment)
Article 39A (42th amendment)
Article 45 (86th amendment)
Article 49 (7th amendment)
Article 43B (97th amendment)
Fundamental Duties (Part IVA of Constitution)
- Originally Constitution does not contain any duty of the citizen.
- Latter in 1976 the fundamental duties of the citizens were added in the constitution.
- These duties are added from the constitution of USSR
- none of the Constitution of France Germany Australia specifically contained a list of duties.
- the socialist countries give equal importance to the fundamental rights and duties to their citizens.
Swaran Singh Committee Recommendation
In 1976, the Congress party at the centre work on the bill of fundamental duties and made a committee targeted at the need and necessity of which was felt at the internal emergency 1975-77.
So Swaran Singh committee recommended to include a new part 43 with article 51A specified a code of 10 fundamental duties of the citizen.
List of Fundamental Duties
- Abide by the Constitution and respect national flag & National Anthem
- Follow ideals of the freedom struggle
- Protect Sovereignty & integrity of India
- Defend the country and render national services when called upon
- Spirit of common brotherhood
- preserve composite culture
- Preserve natural environment
- Develop scientific temper
- Safeguard public property
- strive for excellence
- Duty goes all parents as guardians to send their children in the age group of 6-14 years to school.
Amendment in Fundamental Duties
Originally -10 duties
Now -11 duties (added by 86thAmendment ACT, 2002)
Again Revise in the Video Fundamental Rights, Directive Principle of State Policy, Fundamental duties
- Role of Media
- Educating masses on health and nutrition
- Appropriate nutrition for women and children
Samvidhaan – Episode 2/10 of Rajya Sabha tv
Independence: A Divided Legacy