Integrated rural development programme can be viewed in different ways with special emphasis on its objectives, content, process, structure, outcome and effect. The Programme had been thought about because according to the sixth five year plan. The project are sectoral approach was not adequate for overall development of the area.
It was, therefore, necessary “to plan for integration of various programs and to establish appropriate linkages for optimal utilisation of local endowments, consistent with the plan objectives, local needs and environment balance.” At the planning stage itself the integration was thought of as a clubbing together of various programs for total development.
The need for total development was not at all of a sudden because it had a long history behind it. Community development was introduced with so much enthusiasm and everyone expected that it would bring changes. However, 113 Rai Mehta committee found it to be a failure and suggested a three tier system of administration to enhance the participation of people.
Through the panchayati Raj system was introduced in many states, it was not uniform in many ways and made the system more politically in client and cattered more to the elite, the high class and high caste people.
|Measurements of Poverty||Causes of Poverty in India|
|Social Problems||Rural Poverty|
|Poverty Pains and Problems of Poor||Anti Poverty Programmes|
|Integrated Rural Development Programme||Poverty Alleviation Measures|
|Indira Awas Yojana|
Such an administration could not create a healthy atmosphere for the effective implementation of the developmental activities. On the contrary, many a time it had been a hindrance. Of course, in states like Maharashtra and Rajasthan the panchayati Raj system in functioning well in implementing development activities.
The change in the administrative pattern aimed at efficiency and effectiveness in the functioning. under this small farmers development agency and marginal farmers and agricultural labour agency and few more programs where made part of it.
In the sixth plan, it was stated that none of the programs had so far covered the whole country and multiplicity of programme for the rural poor where operated through multiplicity of agencies.
This needed to be stopped and replaced instead by one single integrated program operate two through the country. The program will be called integrated rural development programme(IRDP).
Integrated Rural Development Programme
IRDP was thus conceived as an assault on poverty. The main purpose of this program where to identify and provide assistance by providing productivity assets technology and skills to the families below the poverty line. To enable them to cross poverty line, to maximize the employment opportunities, to increase the income of the rural folk and also to increase the food production.
The total number of rural households according to the 1981 census was 90.87 million. Considering that 50% of the rural households live below poverty line, it was estimated that 45 million of the rural households were living below poverty line. IRDP was designed to assist the 15 million rural household that were living below poverty line to cross the poverty line by the end of the sixth plan.
Integrated Rural Development Programme covered 3000 families in a block in sixth plan, of which 30% to be SC and ST families. Furthermore, at least 30% of the resources invested in terms of subsidies given and credit distributed had to go to the SC and ST beneficiaries. Out of the total families, two thirds had to be assisted under agriculture and allied activities and one third had to go to the secondary and tertiary activities.
Small farmers had to get 25% subsidy via a marginal farmer agricultural labourers non agricultural labourers and rural artisans were to get 33.3% subsidy.
The beneficiaries belonging to STs will get 50% subsidy. the maximum subsidy that could be given to a non tribal beneficiary rupees ₹3000 while the tribal cieling was ₹5000.
The activities of Integrated Rural Development Programme were spread over Primary, secondary and tertiary sectors. apart from these activities some other programs were also brought together for administrative convenience such as employment training, irrigation and income inhancement.