The word biology is derived from the Greek words ‘bios’ meaning life and ‘logos’ meaning study. The term Biology was first used by French naturalist Jean Lamarck and Treviranus in 1800. Nature and Scope of Biology
Nature and Scope of Biology
- Biology is the study of life in its entirety.
- Biology can also be described as the study of living organisms.
- Biology is the science of life and living organisms.
Biology is classified mainly into two branches.
Zoology is the branch of biology which deals with the study of the animal kingdom including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct.
- Out of all the known species till now 95% are boneless and 5% are animal with bone.
- Animals could be unicellular like paramecium or multicellular like birds, fishes, 🐍, rabbit, human being. in addition, animal exists in a great variety of forms shapes and size.
- The whale is the largest living animal in the world.
botany is the branch of Biology, which deals with the study of plant life including their structure, properties, classification and biochemical process, both living and extinct.
- Theophrastus is known as the father of botany.
- Scientists have discovered more than 3,40,000 species of plants. Sequoia gigantea of California is the oldest and tallest plants of the world.
Branches of Biology
Biology can be further classified in the following sub branches:
- Acarology: Study of tics and mites
- Actinology: the study of radiation effects on animals
- Aerobiology: the study of the airborne organism as well as the structure and their distribution
- Agriology: a comparative study of primitive tribal customs
- Agrobiology: quantitative science of plant life and plant nutrition
- Agrology: Soil science dealing with the production of crops
- Agronomy: Science of soil management of domesticated animals
- Agrostology: Study of grasses
- Anatomy: it is the study of the internal structure of the organisms.
- Andrology: Study of the male reproductive system
- Angiology: Study of blood vascular system, including arteries and veins
- Animal husbandry: raising and management of domesticated animal.
- Anthology: Study of flowers and flowering plants.
- Anthropology: Study of human origin development and culture of present and past races.
- Arthrology: Study of joints.
- Bacteriology: Study of bacteria
- Bioclimatology: Study of climate effects on biological processes and organisms.
- Biometerology: Study of effects of atmospheric changes in living beings.
- Biometrics: Statistical study of biological problems.
- Bionics: study of mechanical systems that functions like living organism or part of living organism
- Biotechnology: technology connected with employing living being or there project in industrial process.
- Bryology: study of byrophytes
- Carcinology: Study of Cancer tumors
- Cardiology: Study of heart
- Chemotaxonomy: Study of bird taxonomy based on chemical present in organism.
- Chirology: Communication system for deaf and mute by sign language
- Cytology: It is the study dealing with structure and function of plant and animal cells.
- Ethology: Study of animal behaviour
- Floriculture: Cultivation of plants for their flowers
- Genetics: It is the science which deals with the mechanism of heredity.
- Geology: it is the science which deals with the earth and its life is recorded in the rocks.
- Haematology: Study of blood
- Hepatology: Study of liver
- Hygiene: It is the study of the care of any organism for the preservation of its health.
- Mammology: Study of mammals
- Mycology: Study of fungi
- Neurology: Study of nervous system
- Oncology: Study of cancer
- Ornithology: It is the study of birds.
- Osteology: Study of bones
- Pharmacy: Compounding and dispensing of drugs
- Photobiology: effect of light on various biological process
- Radiology: Science dealing with x-ray and other imaging techniques for medical diagnosis.
- Saurology: Study of lizards
- Sericulture: Rearing silkworms or extraction of silk.
- Taxonomy: it is the science dealing with the classification and nomenclature of organisms.
- Tectology: Study of structural organization of animals.
- Trophology: Science of Nutrition
- Urology: Science dealing with disorders of urinary tract.
- Zoogeny: Origin and development of animal