Silk is the most elegant textile in the world with unparalleled grandeur, natural sheen, and inherent affinity for dyes, high absorbance, lightweight, soft touch and high durability and known as the “Queen of Textiles” the world over. On the other hand, Silk Production stands for livelihood opportunity for millions owing to high employment-oriented, low capital intensive and remunerative nature of its production. The very nature of this industry with its rural-based on-farm and off-farm activities and enormous employment generation potential has attracted the attention of the planners and policymakers to recognize the industry among one of the most appropriate avenues for socio-economic development of a largely agrarian economy like India.
Silk has been intermingled with the life and culture of the Indians. India has a rich and complex history in silk production and its silk trade dates back to the 15th century. Sericulture industry provides employment to approximately 8.25 million persons in rural and semi-urban areas in India during 2015 – 20. Of these, a sizeable number of workers belongs to the economically weaker sections of society, including women. India’s traditional and culture-bound domestic market and an amazing diversity of silk garments that reflect geographic specificity have helped the country to achieve a leading position in the silk industry.
Rearing of silkworms for production of silk is called sericulture. It involves the following steps.
- first the silkworm for first and keep in conditions which favours them to hatch.
- After the eggs are hatched caterpillars are fed on freshly cut mulberry leaves.
- After eating for about 25 to 30 days. caterpillars already told schools and inclosed themselves completely inside the silk and cocos in 2 to 3 days.
- Collected schools or boiled in hot water treated in the oven for fumigated to kill the love inside. Cocoons are placed in hot and cold water alternatively to choose in the filament. If the Lava is not killed and allowed to grow they will break the cocoon thereby reducing the length of the fibre.
- Filaments are taken out from cocoon and winding of elements onto a real is done. The process of drawing silk fibre by inventing cone and converting it into silk air is called reeling. The end product is a skin of Raw silk.
- The silk threads are then dyed and woven into silk fabric.
It is interesting to know that there are broadly three grades of silk obtained from a cocoon.
- Reeled silk: These are unwanted fibres and form the finest quality of silk. It is pure white in colour.
- Spun silk: It is the inferior quality of silk that remains after the reeling process. Spun silk left after reading is recorded and come for the use. It is light honey-coloured.
- Noil silk: After combing and spinning the short fibres that are left behind are called noil silk. It is an inferior quality of silk and is rough to touch it is also called raw silk.
Factors affecting the quality of silk
- Rearing space: Lava growth is very fast and therefore required sufficient and properly ventilator space, too much crowd in rearing tray result in an increase in humidity, heat and fermentation of litter.
- Leaf quality and quantity: live quality plays an important role in the production of quality cocoons. leaves to the bombs are kept free from dust particles are water droplets.
- Water used in reeling: if the quality of water used for boiling cuckoos is poor, the impurities suspended in water stick to the silk and influence hit colours lecture. pH of water has to be kept in consideration.
- Technique of stifling: schools having different size and qualities need different degree of temperature for stippling. If stippling is done by sun drawing then it can damage the quality of silk due to the action of ultraviolet rays. Hot air conditioning is a better technique.